The title page should:
- present a title that is concise and informative (composed of no more than 100 characters)
- list the full names, institutional addresses and email addresses for all authors
- if a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the Group name as an author. If you would like the names of the individual members of the Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please include this information in the “Acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below
- indicate the corresponding author
Each manuscript must be preceded by an abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions in no more than 250 words. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.
Four to six keywords representing the main content of the article.
The Introduction section should explain the background to the study, its aims, a summary of the existing literature and why this study was necessary.
Materials and Methods
The Materials and methods section should provide enough information to permit repetition of the experimental work.
The methods section should include:
- the aim, design and setting of the study
- the characteristics of participants or description of materials
- a clear description of all processes, interventions and comparisons. Generic names should generally be used. When proprietary brands are used, the brand names, company, town and country should in indicated in parentheses.
- the type of statistical analysis used, including a power calculation if appropriate
The microorganisms used in the study and in particular new isolates must be deposited in a publicly accessible culture collection belonging to the WDCM (e.g. DSM, ATCC, NCIMB). The authors must refer to the collection and the strain number in the text to ensure that the strains are available to other scientists.
If nucleic acid or amino acid sequences are presented (this includes also optimized sequences of known genes), a GenBank/EMBL accession number for primary nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence data must be included in a separate paragraph at the end of the Materials and methods section.
Huge sequencing datasets or raw data must also be deposited, e.g. as a NCBI BioProject.
For studies in proteomics, the minimum information about a proteomics experiment (MIAPE) of the HUPO proteomics standard initiative and publication guidelines for the analysis and documentation of peptide and protein identifications from the journal Molecular and Cellular Proteomics must be followed up. One biological replicate will not be acceptable.
For X-ray crystallographic analyses of proteins (enzymes), the authors should obtain each PDB ID to one structure of protein from PDB (The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB)) and add it to the manuscript just like as nucleotide accession numbers.
The Results section should describe the outcome of the study. Data should be presented as concisely as possible, if appropriate in the form of tables or figures, although very large tables should be included as an additional file
This section should discuss the implications of the findings in context of existing research and highlight limitations of the study. Authors should also state clearly the main conclusions and provide an explanation of the importance and relevance of the study to the field.
List of abbreviations
If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.
Ethics approval and consent to participate
Manuscripts reporting studies involving human participants, human data or human tissue must:
- include a statement on ethics approval and consent (even where the need for approval was waived)
- include the name of the ethics committee that approved the study and the committee’s reference number if appropriate
Studies involving animals must include a statement on ethics approval. See our editorial policies for more information.
If your manuscript does not report on or involve the use of any animal or human data or tissue, this section is not applicable to your submission. Please state “Not applicable” in this section.
Consent for publication
If your manuscript contains any individual person’s data in any form, consent to publish must be obtained from that person, or in the case of children, their parent or legal guardian. All presentations of case reports must have consent to publish.
If your manuscript does not contain any individual persons data, please state “Not applicable” in this section.
Availability of data and materials
For all journals, SpringerOpen strongly encourages all datasets on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely to be either deposited in publicly available repositories (where available and appropriate) or presented in the main paper or additional supporting files, in machine-readable format (such as spreadsheets rather than PDFs) whenever possible. Please see the list of recommended repositories in our editorial policies.
For some journals, deposition of the data on which the conclusions of the manuscript rely is an absolute requirement. Please check the Criteria section for this article type (located at the top of this page) for journal specific policies.
For all journals, authors must include an “Availability of data and materials” section in their article detailing where the data supporting their findings can be found. If you do not wish to share your data, please state that data will not be shared, and state the reason.
For instructions on how to cite your data and format this section see preparation/style and formatting.
All financial and non-financial competing interests must be declared in this section. See our editorial policies for a full explanation of competing interests. If you are unsure whether you or any of your co-authors have a competing interest please contact the editorial office.
All sources of funding for the research reported should be declared. The role of the funding body in the design of the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript should be declared.
The individual contributions of authors to the manuscript should be specified in this section.
Please acknowledge anyone who contributed towards the article who does not meet the criteria for authorship including anyone who provided professional writing services or materials.
Authors should obtain permission to acknowledge from all those mentioned in the Acknowledgements section.
See our editorial policies for a full explanation of acknowledgements and authorship criteria.
Group authorship: if you would like the names of the individual members of a collaboration Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please ensure that the title of the collaboration Group is included on the title page and in the submission system and also include collaborating author names as the last paragraph of the “Acknowledgements” section. Please add authors in the format First Name, Middle initial(s) (optional), Last Name. You can add institution or country information for each author if you wish, but this should be consistent across all authors.
Please note that individual names may not be present in the PubMed record at the time a published article is initially included in PubMed as it takes PubMed additional time to code this information.
You may choose to use this section to include any relevant information about the author(s) that may aid the reader's interpretation of the article, and understand the standpoint of the author(s). This may include details about the authors' qualifications, current positions they hold at institutions or societies, or any other relevant background information. Please refer to authors using their initials. Note this section should not be used to describe any competing interests.
Endnotes should be designated within the text using a superscript lowercase letter and all notes (along with their corresponding letter) should be included in the Endnotes section. Please format this section in a paragraph rather than a list.