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Fig. 1 | AMB Express

Fig. 1

From: Synthesis of cyclophosphamide metabolites by a peroxygenase from Marasmius rotula for toxicological studies on human cancer cells

Fig. 1

Figure adapted from de Jonge et al. (de Jonge et al. 2005)

Metabolism of cyclophosphamide. The activation pathway requires hydroxylation of CPA by the human cytochrome P450 system (especially CYP2B6, -2C19 and -3A4). The primary metabolite 4-OH-CPA is in equilibrium with its tautomer aldophosphamide (APA) that undergoes \(\beta \)-elimination to the final toxic metabolites phosphoramide mustard (PAM) and acrolein. Through an oxidative reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) and particularly aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), 4-OH-CPA and APA are irreversibly deactivated.

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