Open Access

Growth promotion of Spirulina by steelmaking slag: application of solubility diagram to understand its mechanism

  • Reijiro Nogami1,
  • Haruo Nishida1,
  • Dang Diem Hong2 and
  • Minato Wakisaka1Email author
AMB Express20166:96

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-016-0270-4

Received: 26 August 2016

Accepted: 4 October 2016

Published: 12 October 2016

Abstract

A solubility diagram was employed to understand growth promotion of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis by steelmaking slag (SMS). The growth promotion effect of 112 % of freshwater microalga A. platensis was obtained using 5 g/L SMS. However, metabolites, such as pigments, and protein content of A. platensis were not significantly affected. Several metals dissolved in Spirulina–Ogawa–Terui medium were detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry just after the addition of SMS. The solubility diagram provides information on the chemical speciation of metal elements based on pH and concentration. It is a useful tool to understand the effect of metals on microalgal growth. The metal elements used to control microalgal growth are essential minerals but also act as a source of oxidative stress. Regarding the affecting mechanism of SMS, iron may be the primary element regulating microalgal growth via pathway involving reactive oxygen species, as revealed by superoxide dismutase assay.

Keywords

Steelmaking slag Growth promotion Spirulina Solubility diagram Oxidative stress

Introduction

Microalgae are potential sources of cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical products, and biofuels (Xi et al. 2016; Tasić et al. 2016; Santos et al. 2016). However, the productivity of microalgal cultures must be improved for scale-up application.

To improve the productivity of microalgal culture, various efforts, such as screening of better strain selection (Chen et al. 2009; Pereira et al. 2011; Chen et al. 2012; Bajhaiya et al. 2016) and optimization of culture conditions, have been made (Kim et al. 2012; Kanaga et al. 2016). The enhancement of microalgal growth and accumulation of high value products can be achieved by simply adding various chemical substances (Fábregas et al. 1987; Sasaki et al. 1995; Valenzuela-Enrique et al. 2002; Moed et al. 2015; Nayak et al. 2016). Steelmaking slag (SMS), a by-product of iron-making process, is an effective fertilizer for seaweed bed restoration (Takahashi and Yabuta 2002; Yabuta et al. 2006; Miyata et al. 2009; Hayashi et al. 2011; Yamamoto et al. 2012). SMS contains minerals, such like Fe, P, Mg, Ca, Mn, that are essential for algal growth (Yokoyama et al. 2010; Zhang et al. 2012; Mombelli et al. 2014). The growth promotion effect of SMS has been reported in not only macroalgae but also in certain seawater microalgae (Nakamura et al. 1998; Haraguchi et al. 2003; Sugie and Taniguchi 2011). However, investigations on freshwater microalgae required for the commercial production of valuable products are fewer than those on marine microalgae. In our previous study, we demonstrated growth promotion effect of SMS to Spirulina, a freshwater microalgae (Nogami 2016). However, the growth promotion mechanism of SMS is still unclear. Although there are current prevailing opinions, such as the fertilization effect of eluted iron necessary for photosynthesis (Yamamoto et al. 2016) or the contribution of dissolved CO2 via increase in the pH of the medium (Takahashi et al. 2012), there are no unified views to explain growth promotion effect of SMS.

On the other hand, the dissolution behavior of various elements from SMS in seawater and freshwater were demonstrated using solubility diagram (Futatsuka et al. 2004; Miki et al. 2004; Yokoyama et al. 2012). However, there are no reports on the application of a solubility diagram of SMS for understanding microalgal growth profile. The solubility diagram provides information on the stable chemical speciation under different concentration and pH and is useful for understanding the elution or precipitation behavior of solutions. SMS is a mixture of various metal elements. The elution behavior of each element from SMS to culture medium and microalgal growth profile should be correlated to understand the mechanism underlying the growth promotion effect. Elements eluted from SMS to culture medium can be detected using atomic absorption spectrometry to understand the effect on microalgal culture.

This study aimed to understand the correlation between microalgal growth and speciation of metals eluted from SMS using a solubility diagram obtained for Spirulina culture with SMS.

Materials and methods

Materials

The cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (Nordstedt) Gomont NIES-39 strain was purchased from the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan. A. platensis was cultured in 300 mL flasks containing 200 mL of Spirulina–Ogawa–Terui (SOT) medium with the following composition (mg L−1): NaHCO3, 16,800; K2HPO4, 500; NaNO3, 500; K2SO4, 1000; NaCl, 1000; MgSO4·7H2O, 200; CaCl2·2H2O, 40; FeSO4·7H2O, 10; Na2EDTA·2H2O, 80; H3BO3, 2.86; MnSO4·5H2O, 2.5; ZnSO4·7H2O, 0.22; CuSO4·5H2O, 0.08; and Na2MoO4·2H2O, 0.02. SMS, 2 mm in diameter, was added to SOT medium at 0, 0.05, 0.5, and 5 g L−1 in microalgal cultures and blanks. A. platensis was cultivated under the following conditions: a light intensity of 12,000 Lux from a white fluorescent lamp, with 12 h/12 h light/dark cycles and a temperature of 25 °C. All flasks were cultured under static conditions and were shaken by hand twice a day.

Cell growth and metabolite analysis

Cell growth was determined by measuring the dry weight of the biomass. Cells were filtered using filter paper (GC-50, ADVANTEC), oven dried at 105 °C for 2 h, and were placed in a desiccator for 1 h before measuring the weight. Biomass weight was calculated by subtracting the dry weight of the blank. Chlorophyll a and phycocyanin were repeatedly extracted using 80 % acetone and 0.01 M potassium phosphate buffer of pH 7.8, respectively. Pigment contents was calculated by measuring their absorbance at 750 nm using spectrophotometer (UV–vis 1200, Shimadzu). Protein was extracted by salting out, and its concentration was determined by Lowry et al. (1951).

Solubility diagram

The culture medium was sampled every 7 days to monitor pH and metal elution from SMS. After filtering the culture medium, the pH of the filtrate was measured using a pH meter (LAQUA twin, Horiba), and metal elution was detected using Simultaneous ICP Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICPE-9800, Shimadzu). The solubility diagram of eluted elements was obtained based on the calculation of solubility product and chemical potential (Futatsuka et al. 2004).

SOD activity assay

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was measured to determine the microalgal response to metals eluted from SMS. Microalgal cells were harvested by centrifugation and homogenized with potassium phosphate buffer. The homogenates were then centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 10 min at 4 °C. Xanthine oxidase was used to generate O2 , and SOD assay was followed.

Statistical analysis

All experiments were performed in triplicates, and the data has been presented as mean ± standard deviation. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis test, with the level of significance at p < 0.05.

Results

Growth promotion of A. platensis by SMS

The growth promotion effect of SMS on the freshwater microalga A. platensis was comparable to that of other marine microalgae, which was previously reported. Figure 1a shows the growth profile of A. platensis. Its growth significantly increased by the addition of 5 g/L SMS during the latter half of culture. The maximum growth promotion of 1.12-fold higher than that of control was obtained at 21 days. Figure 1b shows the pH change during culture period. pH increased corresponding to the increase in culture time until 20 days, when maximum growth was observed that stabilized at pH 11.5 in control and with 0.05 g/L SMS and slightly decreased below pH 11.5 with 0.5 and 5 g/L SMS. The trend in increase in growth differed based on the amount of SMS, i.e., it proportionally increased with 0.5 and 5 g/L SMS, with rapid increase observed after 15 days in control and with 0.05 g/L SMS.
Fig. 1

Effects of steelmaking slag on Arthrospira platensis culture. a Growth profile, b pH change during culture. () Control, (▲) 0.05 g/L SMS, (□) 0.5 g/L SMS, () 5 g/L SMS

Metabolite analysis of A. platensis

Metabolites, such as pigment, and protein content of A. platensis were not significantly affected by SMS. Figure 2 shows pigment contents [(a) chlorophyll a, (b) phycocyanin] of A. platensis. Pigment contents did not significantly differ until 14 days, but at the end of culture, the pigment contents were decreased in SMS concentration-dependent manner compared with those of the control. There was no significant difference in total protein content observed as shown in Fig. 2c.
Fig. 2

Effects of steelmaking slag on the metabolites of Arthrospira platensis. a Chlorophyll a, b phycocyanin, c protein content of () Control, (▲) 0.05 g/L SMS, (□) 0.5 g/L SMS, () 5 g/L SMS

Metal elution from SMS to culture medium

The dissolution of metals in SOT medium was detected using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry just after the addition of SMS. Figure 3 shows the concentrations of the dissolved metals in SOT medium compared between samples with and without microalgal cells. The dissolution of Ca, Mg, and Fe from SMS was evident at 0 day without microalgal cells, and the concentrations of all dissolved metals decreased with the increase in microalgal cells. In the case with microalgal cells, the concentrations of dissolved Ca, Mg, and Fe decreased over time, but trends in this decrease differed for each metal. The concentration of dissolved Mg sharply decreased to almost zero after 15 days. Change in Fe concentration was observed in SMS concentration-dependent manner. The concentration of dissolved Fe exhibited a more severe decrease after 15 days in the control without SMS than in that with SMS. Samples without microalgal cells exhibited initial decreases in the Ca and Mg concentrations, which subsequently stabilized; However, Fe concentration exhibited a decreasing trend with 5 g/L SMS.
Fig. 3

Elemental dissolution from steelmaking slag (SMS) in Spirulina–Ogawa–Terui medium. a Behavior with Arthrospira platensis (a-1: Ca, a-2: Mg, a-3: Fe), b Behavior without A. platensis (b-1: Ca, b-2: Mg, b-3: Fe), of () Control, (▲) 0.05 g/L SMS, (□) 0.5 g/L SMS, () 5 g/L SMS

Solubility diagram applied for metal elution from SMS

The solubility diagram is a useful tool for understanding the chemical speciation of metals and thus their bioavailability during microalgal culture. Figure 4 shows the solubility diagram of Ca, Mg, and Fe for A. platensis culture. Correlation between the concentration of dissolved metal and pH during culture period was plotted in each solubility diagram. Ca precipitated as CaCO3 soon after elution from SMS in the SOT medium during the culture period, whereas Mg and Fe changed to their respective hydroxides. Fe was considered to be the primary element controlling growth or A. platensis since highest decrease of concentration among three elements was observed.
Fig. 4

Solubility diagram of each element applied for Arthrospira platensis culture. Solubility diagram of a Ca, b Mg, and c Fe for () Control, (▲) 0.05 g/L SMS, (□) 0.5 g/L SMS, () 5 g/L SMS

Oxidative stress by Fe and growth control of A. platensis

To understand the growth control mechanism of Fe from SMS, the biological response to oxidative stress by metal elution from SMS was investigated. Figure 5 shows the SOD activity of A. platensis at 21 days after exposure to SMS. The SOD activity of 5 g/L SMS significantly decreased corresponding to the considerable decrease in Fe concentration compared with that of the other SMS concentrations.
Fig. 5

Superoxide dismutase activity of Arthrospira platensis exposed to steelmaking slag

Discussion

The growth profile results (Fig. 1a) are consistent with the reported values (Carvalho et al. 2004; Chen et al. 2006; Göksan et al. 2007; Markou et al. 2012). This could be due to initial pH of 9.0 achieved by adding SMS was optimal for A. platensis (Fig. 1b).

A. platensis pigment contents in SMS decreased compared with those in the control at the end of culture (Fig. 2a, b). This may be explained by the pH dependency of pigments, with a reported maximum content at pH 8.5 for chlorophyll a and 9.0 for phycocyanin (Ismaiel et al. 2016). Another reason could be due to iron deficiency. The decrease in pigment contents was also reported with another type of cyanobacterium, Aphanocapsa (Sandmann 1985).

Changes in the concentration of each concentration in Fig. 3 may be explained by iron hydroxide precipitation followed by calcium hydroxide formation. Thus, Fe eluted from SMS is considered as the primary element controlling microalgal growth. The solubility diagram, which provides information on the chemical speciation of each elements based on to pH and concentration provides insight on this.

The results of SOD activity (Fig. 5) were consistent with the results in another report which stated that SOD activity is dependent on iron concentration (Ismaiel et al. 2014). Enzymatic activity involving antioxidation, such as that of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and SOD, of A. platensis is known to be dependent on pH level. Optimal pH of 9 was reported for CAT, 10 for POD, and 10.5 for SOD (Ismaiel et al. 2016). The antioxidative capacity of A. platensis supposedly diminished due to increase in pH during the culture period. Reactive oxygen species resulting from this lack of antioxidative capacity reacted with Fe ion eluted from SMS, which is thought to result in the changes in concentration and speciation. Thus, we established a hypothetic scheme to comprehensively understand the correlation between A. platensis growth, Fe speciation and pH, as shown in Fig. 6.
Fig. 6

Schematic illustrations of the biological mechanism of Arthrospira platensis respond to steelmaking slag

Firstly, enzymatic activity relating to antioxidation, such as that of POD, CAT, and SOD, decreased in this order corresponding with the increase in pH during culture. Subsequently, hydrogen peroxide, not thoroughly treated by antioxidative enzymes, leaked out from the cell into the culture medium. Fenton reaction occurred between hydrogen peroxide and ferrous ion eluted from SMS to produce hydroxide ion and hydroxyl radical, which damages the cells. Finally, hydroxide ion reacted with ferrous iron and precipitated as iron hydroxide. This hypothesis explains the experimental results found by adding 5 g/L SMS, which exhibited maximum growth, iron depletion, and loss of SOD activity due to the increase in pH at 21 days. The application of solubility diagrams contributes to the understanding of microalgal growth regulation mechanism in aquatic condition.

Abbreviations

SMS: 

steelmaking slag

SOT: 

Spirulina–Ogawa–Terui

SOD: 

superoxide dismutase

CAT: 

catalase

POD: 

peroxidase

Declarations

Authors’ contributions

RN, DDH, and MW conceived the idea and designed the experiments. RN performed the experiments. RN, DDH, HN, and MW analyzed the data. RN and MW wrote the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

Steelmaking slag was provided by Mr. Yoshinobu Kamijyo from the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Section Hiji Town Office, Oita, Japan.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics approvals

This article does not contain any studies involving experiment on human or animals.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology
(2)
Department of Algal Biotechnology, Institute of Biotechnology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology

References

  1. Bajhaiya AK, Dean AP, Driver T, Trivedi DK, Rattray NJ, Allwood NJW, Goodacre R, Pittman JK (2016) High-throughput metabolic screening of microalgae genetic variation in response to nutrient limitation. Metabolomics 12:1–14. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11306-015-0878-4 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Carvalho JCM, Francisco FR, Almeida KA, Sato S, Converti A (2004) Cultivation of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (cyanophyceae) by fed-batch addition of ammonium chloride at exponentially increasing feeding rates. J Phycol 40:589–597. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2004.03167.x View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Chen T, Zheng W, Wong Y-S, Yang F, Bai Y (2006) Accumulation of selenium in mixotrophic culture of Spirulina platensis on glucose. Bioresour Technol 97:2260–2265. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2005.10.038 View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen W, Zhang C, Song L, Sommerfeld M, Hu Q (2009) A high throughput Nile red method for quantitative measurement of neutral lipids in microalgae. J Microbiol Methods 77:41–47. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2009.01.001 View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen M, Mertiri T, Holland T, Basu AS (2012) Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae. Lab Chip 12:3870–3874. doi:https://doi.org/10.1039/c2lc40478h View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fábregas J, Toribio L, Abalde J, Cabezas B, Herrero C (1987) Approach to biomass production of the marine microalga Tetraselmis suecica (Kylin) Butch using common garden fertilizer and soil extract as cheap nutrient supply in batch cultures. Aquacult Eng 6:141–150. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0144-8609(87)90011-2 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Futatsuka T, Shitogiden K, Miki T, Nagasaka T, Hino M (2004) Dissolution behavior of nutrition elements from steelmaking slag into seawater. ISIJ Int 44:753–761. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.44.753 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Göksan T, Zekeriyaoğlu A, Ak I (2007) The growth of Spirulina platensis in different culture systems under greenhouse condition. Turkish J Biol 31:47–52Google Scholar
  9. Haraguchi K, Suzuki K, Taniguchi A (2003) Effects of steelmaking slag addition on growth of marine phytoplankton. ISIJ Int 43:1461–1468. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.43.1461 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayashi A, Tozawa H, Shimada K, Takahashi K, Kaneko R, Tsukihashi F, Inoue R, Ariyama T (2011) Effects of the seaweed bed construction using the mixture of steelmaking slag and dredged soil on the growth of seaweeds. ISIJ Int 51:1919–1928. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.51.1919 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Ismaiel MMS, El-Ayouty YM, Loewen PC, Piercey-Normore MD (2014) Characterization of the iron-containing superoxide dismutase and its response to stress in cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. J Appl Phycol 26:1649–1658. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10811-013-0233-y View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Ismaiel MMS, El-Ayouty YM, Piercey-Normore M (2016) Role of pH on antioxidants production by Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis. Braz J Microbiol 47:298–304. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2016.01.003 View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Kanaga K, Pandey A, Kumar S (2016) Multi-objective optimization of media nutrients for enhanced production of algae biomass and fatty acid biosynthesis from Chlorella pyrenoidosa NCIM 2738. Bioresour Technol 200:940–950. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.11.017 View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kim W, Park JM, Gim GH, Jeong S-H, Kang CM, Kim D-J, Kim SW (2012) Optimization of culture conditions and comparison of biomass productivity of three green algae. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng 35:19–27. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-011-0612-1 View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:265–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Markou G, Chatzipavlidis I, Georgakakis D (2012) Effects of phosphorus concentration and light intensity on the biomass composition of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 28:2661–2670. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-012-1076-4 View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Miki T, Futatsuka T, Shitogiden K, Nagasaka T, Hino M (2004) Dissolution behavior of environmentally regulated elements from steelmaking slag into seawater. ISIJ Int 44:762–769. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.44.762 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Miyata Y, Sato Y, Shimizu S, Oyamada K (2009) Environment Improvement in the Sea Bottom by Steelmaking Slag. JFE technical report. http://www.jfe-steel.co.jp/en/research/report/013/09.html. Accessed 5 Aug 2016
  19. Moed NM, Lee D-J, Chang J-S (2015) Struvite as alternative nutrient source for cultivation of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. J Taiwan Inst Chem E 56:73–76. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtice.2015.04.027 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Mombelli D, Mapelli C, Barella S, Gruttadauria A, Saout GL, Garcia-D E (2014) The efficiency of quartz addition on electric arc furnace (EAF) carbon steel slag stability. J Hazard Mater 279:586–596. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hazmat.2014.07.045 View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Nakamura Y, Taniguchi A, Okada S, Tokuda M (1998) Positive growth of phytoplankton under conditions enriched with steel-making slag solution. ISIJ Int 38:390–398. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.38.390 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Nayak M, Karemore A, Sen R (2016) Performance evaluation of microalgae for concomitant wastewater bioremediation, CO 2 biofixation and lipid biosynthesis for biodiesel application. Algal Res 16:216–223. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.algal.2016.03.020 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Nogami, R, Tam LT, Anh HTL, Quynh HTH, Thom LT, Nhat PV, Thu NTH, Hong DD, Wakisaka M (2016) Growth promotion effect of steelmaking slag on Spirulina platensis. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/704/1/012019/meta. Accessed 5 Aug 2016
  24. Pereira H, Barreira L, Mozes A, Florindo C, Polo C, Duarate CV, Custódio L, Varela J (2011) Microplate-based high throughput screening procedure for the isolation of lipid-rich marine microalgae. Biotechnol Biofuels 4:1. doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1754-6834-4-61 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Sandmann G (1985) Consequences of iron deficiency on photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport in blue-green algae. Photosynth Res 6:261–271. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00049282 View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Santos TD, de Freitas BCB, Moreira JB, Zanfonato K, Costa JAV (2016) Development of powdered food with the addition of Spirulina for food supplementation of the elderly population. Innov Food Emerg. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2016.07.016 Google Scholar
  27. Sasaki K, Marquez FJ, Nishio N, Nagai S (1995) Promotive effect of 5-aminolevulinic acid on the growth and photosynthesis of Spirulina platensis. J Ferment Bioeng 79:453–457. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/0922-338X(95)91261-3 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Sugie K, Taniguchi A (2011) Continuous supply of bioavailable iron for marine diatoms from steelmaking slag. ISIJ Int 51:513–520. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.51.513 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Takahashi T, Yabuta K (2002) New Application of Iron and Steelmaking Slag. NKK Technical Report-Japanese Edition. http://www.jfe-steel.co.jp/archives/en/nkk_giho/87/07.html. Accessed 5 Aug 2016
  30. Takahashi T, Ogura Y, Ogawa A, Kanematsu H, Yokoyama S (2012) An effective and economic strategy to restore acidified freshwater ecosystems with steel industrial byproducts. J Water Environ Technol 10:347–362. doi:https://doi.org/10.2965/jwet.2012.347 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Tasić MB, Pinto LFR, Klein BC, Veljković VB, Maciel Filho RM (2016) Botryococcus braunii for biodiesel production. Renew Sust Energ Rev 64:260–270. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.06009 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Valenzuela-Enrique E, Millán-Núñez R, Núñez-Cebrero F (2002) Protein, carbohydrate, lipid and chlorophyll a content in Isochrysis aff. galbana (clone T-Iso) cultured with a low cost alternative to the f/2 medium. Aquacult Eng 25:207–216. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0144-8609(01)00084-X View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  33. Xi T, Kim DG, Roh SW, Choi J-S, Choi Y-E (2016) Enhancement of astaxanthin production using Haematococcus pluvialis with novel LED wavelength shift strategy. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 100:1–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7301-6 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Yabuta K, Tozawa H, Takahashi T (2006) New applications of iron and steelmaking slag contributing to a recycling-oriented Society. JFE technical report. http://www.jfe-steel.co.jp/en/research/report/008/03.html. Accessed 5 Aug 2016
  35. Yamamoto M, Fukushima M, Liu D (2012) The effect of humic substances on iron elution in the method of restoration of seaweed beds using steelmaking slag. ISIJ Int 52:1909–1913. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.52.1909 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  36. Yamamoto T, Osawa K, Asaoka S, Madinabeitia I, Liao LM, Hirata S (2016) Enhancement of marine phytoplankton growth by steel-making slag as a promising component for the development of algal biofuels. ISIJ Int 56:708–713. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2015-341 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  37. Yokoyama S, Suzuki A, Nik HBMN, Kanematsu H, Ogawa A, Takahashi T, Izaki M, Umemoto M (2010) Serial batch elution of electric arc furnace oxidizing slag discharged from normal steelmaking process into fresh water. ISIJ Int 50:630–638. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.50.630 View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  38. Yokoyama S, Shimomura T, Hisyamudin MNN, Takahashi T, Izaki M (2012) Influence of amount of oxidizing slag discharged from stainless steelmaking process of electric arc furnace on elution behavior into fresh water. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/352/1/012051/meta. Accessed 5 Aug 2016
  39. Zhang X, Matsuura H, Tsukihashi F (2012) Dissolution mechanism of various elements into seawater for recycling of steelmaking slag. ISIJ Int 52:928–933. doi:https://doi.org/10.2355/isijinternational.52.928 View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2016