Open Access

Oligosaccharides: a boon from nature’s desk

AMB Express20166:82

https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-016-0253-5

Received: 4 April 2016

Accepted: 15 September 2016

Published: 3 October 2016

Abstract

This article reviews the varied sources of oligosaccharides available in nature as silent health promoting, integral ingredients of plants as well as animal products like honey and milk. The article focuses on exotic and unfamiliar oligosaccharides like Galactooligosaccharides, Lactulose derived Galactooligosaccharides, Xylooligosaccharides, Arabinooligosaccharides and algae derived Marine oligosaccharides along with the most acknowledged prebiotic fructooligosaccharides. The oligosaccharides are named as on the grounds of the monomeric units forming oligomers with functional properties. The chemical structures, natural sources, microbial enzyme mediated synthesis and physiological effects are discussed. An elaborate account of the different types of oligosaccharides with special reference to fructooligosaccharides are presented. Finally, the profound health benefits of oligosaccharides are rigourously discussed limelighting its positive physiological sequel.

Keywords

Oligosaccharides Prebiotics Functional food and applications

Introduction

Food industry is presently witnessing an upcoming market for edible products having health benefits apart from nutrition, now well recognized as functional foods. The market of functional foods is facing an increasing demand also because of consumer awareness about health. According to the Global Industry Analyst (GIA) report on the demand of prebiotics, based on studies in market trends in countries like US, Canada, Japan, Europe (France, Germany, Italy, UK, Spain, Russia and rest of Europe), Asia–Pacific (China, India and Rest of Asia–Pacific) and rest of World, the industry is likely to flourish to a tune of US $4.8 billion by 2018 from US $1.0 billion in 2011 (Spinner 2013).

Japan is one of the leading countries giving importance to functional food market focusing on “Food of Specified Health Use” (FOSHU). Many European countries like Germany, France, United Kingdom and Netherlands have also showed an extended demand for functional foods (Katapodis et al. 2004; Menrad 2003).

Since past three decades there has been constant evaluation of market trend of western countries witnessing increased demand of functional foods. Even in developing country like India, where the dairy industry is one of the main industries supporting economy, there has been a significant rise in demand of value added dairy products encompassing health benefits to the consumers (Gour 2013).

Prebiotics and probiotics have raised as best option for quench of the increasing need of functional food. Roberfroid (2000) studied probiotics and prebiotics food and reviewed their properties to be rightly labeled as functional foods. He explained that prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that benefit the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of one or limited number of bacteria in colon.

Food ingredients which naturally offer resistance to digestion, when reach the intestine exhibit a favoring effect on normal flora of the colon are called as prebiotics. Prebiotics encompass several health benefits like the calorie-free nature, act as artificial sweeteners, have non-carcinogenic nature and stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium and probiotic Lactobacilli in the colon (Saminathan et al. 2011). They possess preventive effect against colon cancer (Moore et al. 2003). They have ability to decrease cholesterol levels in the serum (Fernandez et al. 2003). Phospholipids and triglyceride levels are also found to be regulated in the serum by prebiotic food (Katapodis et al. 2004). Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are gaining wide acceptance as prebiotics (Belorkar et al. 2013). This mini review presents an overview of the types of oligosaccharides existing in nature, their sources and major thrust applications.

Oligosaccharides: types, sources and applications

Extensive research has been done on various types of oligosaccharides. They differ in their nature of monomeric sugars and are named so. They have varied sources of origin and differ in their benefits imparted to the consumer. The most popular oligosaccharides are FOS, Galactooligosaccharides (GOS), Lactulose derived galactooligosaccharides (LDGOS), Xylooligosaccharides (XOS), Arabinooligosaccharides (AOS), algae derived marine oligosaccharides (ADMO). Other oligosaccharides occurring in nature are Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS), Maltooligosaccharides (MOS), Cyclodextrins (CD) and human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) with specific acknowledged benefits. The oligosaccharides have great industrial applications (Crittenden and Playne 1996; Prapulla et al. 2000). The chemical structure of some important oligosaccharides are given in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1

Overview of structure of some common oligosaccharides

Structure of fructooligosaccharides

FOS consist of a fructose units polymerized to different extent. Oligomers with two fructose units are called as 1-kestose. Oligomers with three fructose units are called as 1-nystose. Oligomers with four fructose units are called as 1-fructofuranosyl-nystose. The sugars are linked by β-2, 1 position of sucrose (Sangeetha et al. 2005).

Occurrence of FOS

Varieties of sources cater fructooligosaccharides in varying concentrations as its natural component like wheat, honey, onion, garlic and banana (Roberfroid and Slavin 2000). Barley and tomato contains 0.15 % of fructooligosaccharides. Banana and brown sugar has 0.30 % fructooligosaccharides. Honey has 0.75 % of fructooligosaccharides (Flamm et al. 2001).

Bornet et al. (2002) recorded the occurrence of short chain FOS in many edible plants. Fructooligosaccharides expresses degree of polymerization from 1 to 5 units of fructose. Short chain oligosaccharides are similar to dietary fibers in resisting digestion in intestine and getting converted to acetate, propionate, butyrate and gas in colon. Fructooligosaccharides also add up to the fecal matter and gives improved bowel movement. In the digestive tract they promote Bifidobacterium and on other hand have an inhibitory effect on Clostridium perfringes in colon.

FOS are found abundantly in nature as a component of cereals, fruits and vegetables next to starch specified in Fig. 2 (Sangeetha et al. 2005). These exhibit resistance to basic enzymes involved in digestion like alpha amylase, saccharase and maltase when investigated in humans (Losada and Olleros 2002).
Fig. 2

Distribution of FOS in various natural products

Johnson et al. (2013) reported that lentils are rich in prebiotics. There is a significant variation in prebiotic carbohydrate composition of different types of lentils. They analyzed Raffinose-family oligosaccharides, sugar alcohols, fructooligo-saccharide and resistant starch carbohydrates. They recorded the occurrence of Raffinose-family oligosaccharides, sugar alcohols, fructooligosaccharides and resistant starch as 4071, 1423, 62 and 7500 mg per 100 g dry matter, respectively.

Fructosyltransferase enzyme

Some plants and microorganisms express fructosyltransferase enzyme naturally. The activity of this enzyme empowers these organisms to synthesize fructooligosaccharides (Sanchez et al. 2008). Fructosyltransferase enzyme from different sources exhibit different mechanisms of action and produce different mixtures of oligosaccharides.

Beneficial health effects of FOS on consumers

FOS are receiving attention and importance not merely because of their application as alternative sweeteners but rather for the accompanied desirable characteristics. The earlier known health benefits of FOS were inhibitory effect on pathogens and stimulatory effect on Bifidobacterium. The FOS was analyzed further to highlight its detailed interaction with Bifidobacterium (probiotics) which paved a pathway for the concept of synbiotics (Perrin et al. 2001; Vander et al. 2004). The health benefits of FOS have been reviewed by many workers (Antosova and Polakovic 2001; Hernandez et al. 2009; Patel and Goyal 2011; Ganaje et al. 2014).

Some of the evident health benefits observed by consumption of fructooligosaccharides include the following:

Promotes growth of the gut micro flora

Studies on Bifidobacterium species revealed that fructooligosaccharides preferred those carbohydrates which allow maximum growth and metabolic activities of this beneficial flora in human intestine (Palframan et al. 2003). The diet and its composition have an impact on gut and its microflora. It has been observed that any kind of change in the diet affects the metabolism of the inhabitants. The dietary fibres like oligosaccharides exert a combined effect on both the pH environment of the gut and the metabolism of bacterial community (Chen et al. 2000; Flint et al. 2007).

Prebiotics have multidimensional effect on host-bacteria interaction

It is now well established fact that host bacteria interactions are highly specific with varied dimensions. The digestion resistant carbohydrates in the gut are fermented in the colon which causes increase in the serum lactate levels. The study was conducted on horses by injecting fructooligosaccharides directly in caecum and acidotic state was maintained. Its effect on caecum bacteria and metabolites were analyzed. Streptococcal species (EHSS) showed positive relation with caecum lactate and negative response with serum lactate; however, serum lactate has a positive influence on Enterobacteriaceae (Rudi 2010).

Genetic features direct the probiotic effect of bacteria

Excellent studies on genomics of lactic acid bacteria in relation to their role in functional foods have been done by Klaenhammer et al. (2005). Their findings discovered that many genetic features exert control over the bacterial metabolic and probiotic process.

Development of resistance to ill effects of bile salts

Fructooligosaccharides and their monomeric derivatives offer resistance against the ill effects of bile salts on Bifidus group of intestinal inhabitants. Perrin et al. (2001) studied the inhibitory effect of bile salts on three strains of Bifidobacterium in medium containing any carbohydrate source. In presence of fructooligosaccharides in the medium the Bifidobacterium improved their resistance and demonstrated better growth in presence of bile salts. Macfarlane et al. (2008) studied the effect of inulo, galacto and fructooligosaccharides was extremely favorable for Bifidobacterium and also Lactobacilli but to a lesser extent. Their health benefits encompass features like putative anti-cancer properties, mineral absorption, lipid metabolism, anti-inflammatory and other immune effects such as atopic disease.

Promotes preferential growth of Bifidus

A statistical model was used by Shuhaimi et al. (2009) for the study of growth of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 under the influence of prebiotic. The physiological effect of inulin and fructooligosaccharides were investigated with sorbitol, arabinan and inoculum rate. Fractional factorial design was used to determine their effect on growth of selected bacterium in skimmed milk. They optimized their growth conditions and concluded that in 1 L fermentor, the yield increase and Central Composite Design was very effective in optimization of medium for growth of Bifidus. In a similar study, Ketabi and Dieleman (2011) investigated the effect of isomalto-oligosaccharides on intestinal microflora of rats and inferred that it specifically stimulated the growth of Lactobacilli.

Removal of cholesterol

Cholesterol was found to be evidently removed by Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4962 in the presence of prebiotics in a study conducted by Liong and Shah (2005). The effect of six prebiotics including fructooligosaccharides was used to investigate the best combination for effective removal of cholesterol. The first-order model, the second-order polynomial regression model and quadratic models were used in their study.

Artificial sweetness

Apart from all the above stated prime health benefits fructooligosaccharides also has artificial sweetness and low caloric value. Artificial sweeteners are constantly in demand due to need of diabetics and health conscious consumers. Initially the demand was satisfied by aspartame agent or natural sweeteners like palatinose. Due to their popular use all types of oligosaccharides remained poorly exploited despite their functional properties (Mussatto et al. 2009).

Role in osteoporosis

The most recent trial of fructooligosaccharides supplemented with calcium in post menopausal women have registered beneficial effects in bone mineral density which is highly significant in osteoporosis (Slevin et al. 2014).

Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and Lactulose derived galactooligosaccharides (LDGOS)

Mammalian milk is the natural source of GOS. Industrially trans galactosylation of lactose present in whey catalysed by β-galactosidases is gaining momentum as an promising alternative for synthesis of GOS (Affertsholt-Allen 2009).

β-Galactosidase is a hydrolase that attacks the o-glucosyl group of lactose. The general mechanism of enzymatic lactose hydrolysis has a transgalactosylic nature, involving a multitude of sequential reactions with disaccharides (other than lactose) and higher saccharides, collectively named galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), as intermediate products (Wallenfels and Malhotra 1960; Goulas et al. 2007). Non digestible oligosaccharides have wider applications (Sako et al. 1999).

The GOS are complex mixtures of oligosaccharides ranging from two to eight moieties, and different glycosidic linkages: β-(1,1), β-(1,2), β-(1,3), β-(1,4) and β-(1,6) (Playne and Crittenden 2009). The hydrolytic enzymes preferentially expressed by Bifidobacterium species specifically target β-glycosidic linkages of GOS in the intestine (Macfarlane et al. 2008).

Microbes are exuberant sources of the enzymes producing Lactulose and GOS (Nguyen et al. 2009; Splechtna et al. 2006, 2007; Maischberger et al. 2008; Placier et al. 2009). The operation conditions are to be properly monitored for optimal ratio of lactulose and GOS for potential synthesis of prebiotics (Guerrero et al. 2013; 2015).

The main physiological effects of GOS are related with their composition and activities of the intestinal microbiota (Algieri et al. 2014). The human intestinal tract harbors a complex community of bacteria, eukaryotic microorganisms, archaea, viruses, and bacteriophages, collectively referred to as the intestinal microbiota. Bacteria account for the majority of these microorganisms: their total number in the human gut is estimated at 1014 cells mainly present in the colon (Backhed et al. 2005; Lupp and Finlay 2005). The wide applications of GOS and LDGOS are represented in Fig. 3.
Fig. 3

Functions of GOS and LDGOS

Xylooligosaccharides (XOS)

Xylooligosaccharides or feruloyl oligosaccharides are known to be produced by Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Bacillus and Streptomyces. It is found in plant sources like Bengalgram husk, wheat bran and straw, spentwood, barley hulls, brewery spent grains, almond shells, bamboo and corn cob. XOS mainly exerts prebiotic effect in consumers.

These unusual oligosaccharides are composed by chains of xylose moieties linked by β-(1,4) bonds, with a polymerization degree ranging from two to ten monosaccharides.

It is also known to act as a plant growth regulator. It has multidimensional applications as antioxidant and gelling agent in food products, beneficial for diabetes, in treatment of arteriosclerosis, reduces total cholesterol and LDL in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and in colon cancer (Chung et al. 2007; Sheu et al. 2008; Lecerf et al. 2012; Moure et al. 2006; Katapodis and Chistakopoulos 2008; Madhukumar and Muralikrishna 2010). Figure 4 is a diagrammatic representation of applications of XOS.
Fig. 4

Functions of XOS

Arabinooligosaccharides (AOS)

Arabinooligosaccharides are yet another class of oligosaccharides which hold the potential of being labelled as prebiotics. The exuberant source of AOS is arabinan polysaccharide a branched pectic polysaccaharide exhibiting linkage of 1,3 and 1,5 α l -arabinofuranosyl residues (Vogel 1991). Arabinose occurs naturally in arabinans, arabinogalactans or arabino xylans present in plants cell wall components. The nature of linkages differ depending upon the sources. The brush border epithelial cells of the intestine are inefficient to degrade the polysaccharides present in plant cell wall. This resistance of cell wall polysaccharides towards intestinal hydrolysis confer them the potential to be used as prebiotics (Yoo et al. 2012; Rastall and Hotchkiss 2003). The efficacy of the prebiotic effect of AOS is structure dependent (Casci et al. 2006; Gullón et al. 2011).

Initially the extraction was practiced by hot alkali treatment (Cibe 2003) of sugar beet dried pulp (5.5 million tons) a major coproduct of beet sugar industries residue in European countries.

AOS can also obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of Arabinose containing polymers. Beldman et al. (1997) classified the Arabinan degrading enzymes in six classes-
  1. (i)

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidase (EC 3.2.1.55), which is not active with polymers (Komae et al. 1982; Weinstein and Alber sheim 1979).

     
  2. (ii)

    α-l-Arabinofuranosidase, which is active with polymers (Kaji and Tagawa, 1970; Rombouts et al. 1988).

     
  3. (iii)

    α-l-Arabinofuranohydrolase, which is specific for arabinoxylans (Kormelink et al. 1991; Van Laere et al. 1997).

     
  4. (iv)

    exo-α-l-Arabinanase, which is not active with p-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside (Kaji and Shimokawa1984; McKie et al. 1997).

     
  5. (v)

    β-l-Arabinopyranosidase (Dey 1983; Kaji and Saheki 1975).

     
  6. (vi)

    endo-1, 5-α-l-Arabinanase (EC 3.2.1.99) (Voragen et al. 1987).

     

The various degree of polymerization (dp) are obtained when subjected to ultrafiltration can produce Oligosaccharides of uniform molecular weight (Matsubara et al. 1996; Jian et al. 2013). AOS derived from sugar beet pectin (Al-Tamimi et al. 2006) and lemon peel (Hotchkiss et al. 2010) support the intestinal bifidus flora nearly equal to FOS and Inulooligosaccharides (Gómez et al. 2015; Palframan et al. 2002; Rycroft et al. 2001; Sanz et al. 2005). The extent of response is directly proportional to the dp of the oligosaccharide (Sulek et al. 2014; Westphal et al. 2010).

Apart from the normal benefits, AOS is reported to reduce the inflammatory conditions in Ulcerative colitis patients. Invitro experiments have proved about specific stimulation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus accompanied by production of SCFA acetate which is well known stimulator of anti inflammatory response. AOS can prove to be a boon for patients suffering from Ulcerative colitis after in vivo confirmation (Vigsnæs et al. 2011).

Algal-oligosaccharides lysate (AOL) and neoagarooligosaccharides (NAOS) occur in the algal polysaccharide extracts (APEs) of Gracilaria and Monostromaand inenzymatic hydrolysis of agarose. They have a prebiotic effect and also act as an antioxidant (Wu et al. 2005; Hu et al. 2006).

Algae-derived marine oligosaccharides

Recently, algae are reported to contain bipolysaccharides (Stengel et al. 2011; Barra et al. 2014). The bioactive components mainly include glucose, starch and other polysaccharides (Hamed et al. 2015). Besides these, oligosaccharides are another group of carbohydrates with small dp containing 3–10 sugar units, ranging from disaccharides and/or carbohydrates with up to 20 residues with defined functions (Patel and Goyal 2010).

The chemical structure and conformation decides the classification of algae-derived marine oligosaccharides namely chitosan-, laminarin-, alginate-, fucoidan-, carrageenan- and ulvan-oligosaccharides.

The note worthy bioactive compounds in Marine macroalgae or seaweeds is namely polysaccharides, tannins, and diterpenes. (O’sullivan et al. 2010). These ingredients may lead a pivitol role in nutraceuticals (Milinki et al. 2011). The functions of ADMO are given in Fig. 5.
Fig. 5

Functions of AOS

Other oligosaccharides

Mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) are mainly isolated from cell wall fragments of yeast. It was found to alter the gut microflora in fishes. It has been used as an alternative to antibiotics and added to improve the nutritive value of broiler diets (Dimitroglou et al. 2010; Eseceli et al. 2010). Chitosanoligosaccharides (COS) has been recorded to be produced by depolymerisation of chitosan. They are mainly used as an antioxidative agent, anti-tumor agent and anti-microbial agent. Chitosan oligosaccharides have been recorded to protect normal cells from apoptosis (Liu et al. 2010). Human milkoligosaccharide (HMO) naturally occurs in human breast milk. It signifies the preferential growth of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacilli in the colon of mother fed babies (Quigley 2010). Gentiooligosaccharides (GeOS) is produced by digestion of starch and mainly used as a prebiotic (Cote 2009; Fujimoto et al. 2009).

Pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (pAOS) occur in higher plant products like fruits and vegetables. It mainly finds its applications in infant formulae to subside diarrhoea, increase absorption of minerals and calcium ions and also has antioxidant effects (Liu et al. 2010). pAOS also successfully helped in the lung infections by modulating the intestinal microbiota and the inflammatory and immune responses (Bernard et al. 2015). Cyclodextrins (CDs) are produced by transformation of starch by Bacillus macerans. It is used as a stabilizer for volatile compounds in food preparations and chemicals. It acts as an antioxidant. It is used as taste enhancers in bitter medicines and food items (Astray et al. 2009; Courtois 2009).

Although all oligosaccharides are exhibiting prebiotic properties but fructo-oligosaccharides has gained much attention as artificial sweeteners because they provide sweet taste to the consumer and do not increase the blood glucose level. Therefore, they find important place in the food of diabetics. Thus, fructooligosaccharides act as artificial sweeteners with functional properties apart from sweetness similar to that of natural sweeteners.

Oligosaccharides from various sources have been considered as boon due to health benefits they encompass along with property of being used as an artificial sweetner. Due to the diversified health benefits conferred by them, they have earned a prominent recognition as Nutraceuticals presently limelighted in the health market. The microbial production of enzymes catering the catalysis of oligosaccharides are now targeted by the biotechnologists for their optimum synthesis. Microorganisms, especially molds have been the most prominent microbe for enzymatic synthesis of the prebiotic oligosaccharides. Since 1980s teeming research work was focused towards isolation of potent microbes for oligosaccharide synthesis. The oligosaccharide production has been successfully attempted employing diverse approach viz. SmF, SSF, immobilization of the intact microbial cells or derived enzymes. The successful attempts have been made to improve the strain through mutations.

These laboratory processes have although recorded successful production of oligosaccharides but scaling up introduces exuberant increase in the cost of production of oligosaccharides. The bio process improvement should be inculcated using cheaper agro-industrial wastes as substrates for oligosaccharide production. To decrease the cost of production following issues have to be addressed: (i) a potent and stable microbial enzyme source is to be fetched (ii) scrutinizing agro-industrial wastes befitting the oligosaccharide production (iii) cheaper alternatives for purification strategies of synthesized oligosaccharides.

Future prospects

As stated in the introduction of the review the demand of health promoting food is expected to rise up to US $4.8 billion by 2018. The hike in the demand is indicative of the future directions towards which the food industry is fastly marching. The so called health promoting food or pro and prebiotics under the unanimous label of “Nutraceuticals” will be a focus of attraction for every such layman growing conscious about health in near future. The present scenario of the health market trend is facing certain health issues pertaining to intake of the prebiotics viz. aggravation of intolerance to lactose, increments in allergic responsiveness of sensitive individuals as reported in several human based case studies.

Looking forward with this setback associated with probiotics, prebiotic are coming up as more promising option. Above all the prebiotic effect of oligosaccharides are now extended to their antidiarrheal, antiobesity and presently towards suppression of type 2 diabetes. The future would really depend on the synergistic effect developed by combinational use of prebiotics and probiotics. The incremental benefits of synbiotics would be auxiliary to the nature’s boon.

Abbreviations

ADMO: 

algae derived marine oligosaccharides

AOS: 

arabinooligosaccharides

CD: 

cyclodextrins

dp: 

degree of polymerization

FOSHU: 

food of specified health use

FOS: 

fructooligosaccharides

GOS: 

galactooligosaccharides

GIA: 

Global Industry Analyst

HMO: 

human milk oligosaccharides

LDGOS: 

lactulose derived galactooligosaccharides

MOS: 

maltooligosaccharides

pAOS: 

pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides

XOS: 

xylooligosaccharides

Declarations

Authors’ contributions

The corresponding author has prepared script under the guidance of co author. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Acknowledgements

The author’s acknowledge the support of SOS in Life Sciences, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur and Department of Microbiology and Bioinformatics, Bilaspur University, Bilaspur for supporting the work for which the topic was reviewed.

Competing interests

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Funding

The present review is not funded by any funding agency.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Microbiology and Bioinformatics, Bilaspur University
(2)
Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University

References

  1. Affertsholt-Allen T. Market developments and industry challenges for lactose and lactose derivatives. IDF Symposium “Lactose and its Derivatives.” Moscow 2007. 2009. http://lactose.ru/present/1Tage_Affertsholt-Allen.pdf.
  2. Algieri F, Nogales AR, Mesa NG, Vezza T, Mesa JG, Utrilla MP, Montilla A, Cobas AC, Olano A, Corzo N, Hernández EG, Zarzuelo A, Cabezas MER, Galvez J. Intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of oligosaccharides derived from lactulose in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid model of rat colitis. J Agric Food Chem. 2014;62:4285–97. doi:https://doi.org/10.1021/jf500678.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Tamimi MAHM, Palframan RJ, Cooper JM. In vitro fermentation of sugar beet arabinan and arabinooligosaccharides by the human gut microflora. J Appl Microbiol. 2006;100:407–14.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Antosova M, Polakovic M. Fructosyltrasferase : the enzyme catalyzing production of fructooligosaccharides. Chem Pap. 2001;55:350–8.Google Scholar
  5. Astray G, Gonzalez BC, Mejuto JC, Rial OR, Simal GJ. A review on the use of cyclodextrins in foods. Food Hydrocoll. 2009;23:1631–40.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Backhed F, Ley RE, Sonnenburg JL, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science. 2005;307:1915–20.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Barra L, Chandrasekaran R, Corato F, Brunet C. The challenge of ecophysiological biodiversity for biotechnological applications of marine microalgae. Mar Drugs. 2014;12:1641–75. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/md12031641.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Beldman G, Schols HA, Pitson SM, Searle-van Leeuwen MJF, Voragen AGJ. Arabinans and arabinan degrading enzymes. Adv Macromol Carbohydr Res. 1997;1:1–64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Belorkar SA, Gupta AK, Rai V. Isolation of potential microbial producers of fructosyltransferase from baggasse and selected soil sites of Chhattisgarh, India. Asian J Microbiol Biotechnol Environ Exp Sci. 2013;15:785–8.Google Scholar
  10. Bernard H, Desseyn JL, Bartke N, Kleinjans L, Stahl B, Belzer C, Knol J, Gottrand F, Husson MO. Dietary pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides improve the pulmonary bacterial clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in mice by modulating intestinal microbiota and immunity. J Infect Dis. 2015;211:156–65. doi:https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu391 PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Bornet RJF, Meflah K, Menanteau J. Enhancement of gut immune functions by short-chain fructooligosaccharides and reduction of colon cancer risk. Biosci Microflora. 2002;21:55–62.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Casci T, Rastall RA, Gibson GR. Human gut microflora in health and disease: focus on prebiotics. In: Shetty K, Paliyath G, Pometto A, Levin RE, editors. Food biotechnology. Boca Raton: CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group FL; 2006. p. 1134–64.Google Scholar
  13. Chen HL, Lu YH, Lin J, Ko LY. Effects of fructooligosaccharide on bowel function and indicators of nutritional status in constipated elderly men. Nutr Res. 2000;20:1725–33.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Chonan O, Takahashi R, Watanuki M. Role of activity of gastrointestinal microflora in absorption of calcium and magnesium in rats fed β1- >4 linked galactooligosaccharides. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001;65:1872–5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Chung Y, Hsu C, Ko C. Dietary intake of xylooligosaccharides improves the intestinal microbiota, fecal moisture, and pH Value in the elderly. Nutr Res. 2007;27:756–61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Cibe. Environmental report: beet growing and sugar production in Europe. Confederation of European beet grower. Paris, France; 2003.Google Scholar
  17. Cote GL. Acceptor products of alternant sucrase with gentiobiose. Production of novel oligosaccharides for food and feed and elimination of bitterness. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:187–90.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Courtois J. Oligosaccharides from land plants and algae: production and applications in therapeutics and biotechnology. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2009;12:261–73.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Crittenden RG, Playne MJ. Production, properties and applications of food-grade oligosaccharides. Trends Food Sci Technol. 1996;71:353–61.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Dey PM. Further characterization of β-l-arabinosidase from Cajanus indicus. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1983;1983(746):8–13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Deguchi Y, Matsumoto K, Ito T, Watanuki M. Effects of β1-4 galacto-oligosaccharides administration on defecation of healthy volunteers with constipation tendency. Jpn J Nutr. 1997;55:13–22 (in Japanese).View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Spring P, Sweetman J, Moate R, Davies SJ. Effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance feed utilization, intestinal histology and gut micro biota of gilthead sea bream (Sparusaurata). Aquaculture. 2010;300:182–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Eseceli H, Demir E, Degirmencioglu N, Bilgic M. The effects of Bio-Mosmannan oligosaccharide and antibiotic growth promoter performance of broilers. J Anim Vet Adv. 2010;9:392–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Fernandez RC, Maresma BG, Juarez A, Martinez J. Production of fructooligosaccharides by β-fructofuranosidase from Aspergillus sp. 27 H. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 2003;79:268–72.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Flamm G, Glinsmann W, Kritchevsky D, Prosky L, Roberfroid M. Inulin and oligofructose as dietary fiber: a review of the evidence. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2001;41:353–62.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  26. Flint HJ, Duncan SH, Scott KP, Louis P. Interactions and competition within the microbial community of the human colon: links between diet and health. Environ Microbiol. 2007;9:1101–11.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Fujimoto Y, Hattori T, Uno S, Murata T, Usui T. Enzymatic synthesis of gentiooligosaccharides by transglycosylation with β-glycosidases from Penicillium multicolour. Carbohydr Res. 2009;344:972–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  28. Ganaje MA, Lateef A, Gupta US. Enzymatic trends of fructooligosaccharides production by microorganisms. Appl Biotechnol. 2014;172:2143–59.Google Scholar
  29. Gómez B, Miguez B, Veiga A. Production, purification and in vitro evaluation of the prebiotic potential of arabinoxylooligosaccharides from brewer’s spent grain. J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63:8429–38. doi:https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b03132 (Epub 2015 Sep 15).PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. González A, Castro J, Vera J, Moenne A. Seaweed oligosaccharides stimulate plant growth by enhancing carbon and nitrogen assimilation, basal metabolism and cell division. J Plant Growth Regul. 2012;32:443–8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-012-9309-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  31. Goulas A, Tzortzis G, Gibson GR. Development of a process for the production and purification of α- and β-galactooligosaccharides from Bifidobacterium bifidum NCIMB 41171. Int Dairy J. 2007;17:648–56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Gour D. Value added dairy products: catalyst for good health. Int Index Refereed J. 2013;48:36–8.Google Scholar
  33. Guerrero C, Vera C, Illanes A. Optimisation of synthesis of oligo-saccharides derived from lactulose (fructosyl-galacto-oligosaccharides) with β-galactosidases of different origin. Food Chem. 2013;138:2225–32. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.10.128.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Guerrero C, Vera C, Conejeros R, Illanes A. Transgalactosylation and hydrolytic activities of commercial preparations of β-galactosidase for the synthesis of prebiotic carbohydrates. Enzym Microb Technol. 2015;70:9–17.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  35. Gullón P, González-Muñoz MJ, Parajó JC. Manufacture and prebiotic potential of oligosaccharides derived from industrial solid wastes. Bioresou Technol. 2011;02:6112–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  36. Hamed I, Özogul F, Özogul Y, Regenstein JM. Marine bioactive compounds and their health benefits:are view. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf. 2015;14:446–65. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12136.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  37. Hernandez MLV, Aguirre VMB, Patino ABP, Juarez MC, Moctezuma MPC, Alarcon JJV. Microbial fructosyltransferase and the role of fructans. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;106:1763–78.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  38. Hotchkiss AT, Nunez A, Rastall RA. Growth promotion of beneficial bacteria in gut of human comprises administering composition comprising arabino oligosaccharide as prebiotic US patent 316766–A1; 2010.Google Scholar
  39. Hu B, Gong Q, Wang Y, Ma Y, Li J, Yu W. Prebiotic effects of neoagaro-oligosaccharides prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of agarose. Anaerobe. 2006;12(5–6):260–6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  40. Iji PA, Kadam MM. Prebiotic properties of algae and algae- supplemented products A2-Domínguez, Herminia. In: Dominguez H, editor. In functional ingredients from algae for foods and nutraceuticals. Cambridge: Wood head Publishing; 2013. p. 658–70. doi:https://doi.org/10.1533/9780857098689.4.658.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  41. Jian W, Sun Y, Huang H, Yang Y, Peng S, Xiong B, Pan T, Xu Z, He M, Pang J. Study on preparation and separation of Konjac oligosaccharides. Carbohydr Polym. 2013;92(2):1218–24.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  42. Johnson CR, Thavarajah D, Combs GF, Thavarajah R. Lentil (Lens culinaris L.): a prebiotic-rich whole food legume. Food Res Int. 2013;51:107–13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  43. Kaji A, Saheki T. Endo-arabinase from Bacillus subtilis F-11. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975;410:354–60.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  44. Kaji A, Shimokawa K. New exo-type arabinase from Erwinia carotovora IAM. Agric Biol Chem. 1984;48:67–72.Google Scholar
  45. Kaji A, Tagawa K. Purification, crystalization and amino acid composition of α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1970;207:456–64.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  46. Katapodis P, Chistakopoulos P. Enzymatic production of feruloylxylo-oligosaccharides from corn cobs by a family 10 xylanase from Thermoascusaurantiacus. LWT Food Sci Technol. 2008;41:1239–43.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  47. Katapodis P, Kalogeris E, Kekos D, Macris BJ. Biosynthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides by Sporotrichum thermophile during submerged batch cultivation in high sucrose media. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004;63:378–82.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  48. Ketabi LA, Dieleman MGG. Influence of isomalto-oligosaccharides on intestinal microbiota in rats. J Appl Microbiol. 2011;110:1297–306.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  49. Kim SK. Marine nutraceuticals: prospects and perspectives. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2013.Google Scholar
  50. Klaenhammer TR, Barrangou R, Buck BL, Peril MAA, Altermann E. Genomic features of lactic acid bacteria effecting bioprocessing and health. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2005;29:393–409.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  51. Kok N, Roberfroid M, Robert A, Delzenne N. Involvement of lipogenesis in lower VLDL secretion induced by oligofructose in rats. Br J Nutr. 1996;76:881–90.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  52. Komae K, Kaji A, Sato M. An α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Streptomyces purpurascens IFO 3389. Agric Biol Chem. 1982;46:1899–905.Google Scholar
  53. Kormelink FJM, Searle-van Leeuwen MJF, Wood TM, Voragen AGJ. Purification and characterization of an (1,4)-β-d-arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase from Aspergillus awamori. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1991;35:753–8.Google Scholar
  54. Lecerf JM, Depeint F, Clerc E. Xylo-oligosaccharide (XOS) in combination with inulin modulates both the intestinal environment and immune status in healthy subjects, while XOS alone only shows prebiotic properties. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:1847–58.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  55. Liong MT, Shah NP. Optimization of cholesterol removal, growth and fermentation patterns of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC4962 in the presence of mannitol, fructo-oligosaccharide and inulin: a response surface methodology approach. J Appl Microbiol. 2005;98:1115–26.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  56. Liu HT, He JL, Li WM, Yang Z, Wang YX, Bai XF, Yu C, Du YG. Chitosan oligosaccharides protect human umbilical vein endothelial cells from hydrogen peroxide induced apoptosis. Carbohydr Polym. 2010;80:1062–71. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2010.01.025.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  57. Lordan S, Ross RP, Stanton C. Marine bioactives as functional food ingredients: potential to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. Mar Drugs. 2011;9:1056. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/md9061056.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  58. Losada MA, Olleros T. Towards healthier diet for the colon: the influence of fructooligosaccahides and Lactobacilli on intestinal health. Nutri Res. 2002;22:71–84.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  59. Lupp C, Finlay BB. Intestinal microbiota. Curr Biol. 2005;15:235–6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  60. Macfarlane GT, Steed H, Macfarlane S. Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics. J Appl Microbiol. 2008;104:305–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Madhukumar MS, Muralikrishna G. Structural characterization and determination of prebiotic activity of purified xylooligosaccharides obtained from Bengal gram husk (Cicer arietinum L.) and wheat bran (Triticum aestivum). Food Chem. 2010;118:215–22.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  62. Maischberger T, Nguyen TH, Sukyai P, Kittl R, Riva S, Ludwig R, Haltrich D. Production of lactose-free galacto-oligosaccharide mixtures: comparison of two cellobiose dehydrogenases for the selective oxidation of lactose to lactobionic acid. Carbohydr Res. 2008;343:2140–7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  63. Matsubara Y, Iwasaki KI, Nakajima M, Nabetani H, Nakaq SI. Recovery of oligosaccharides from steamed soybean waste water in Tofu processing by reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1996;60:421–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  64. McKie VA, Black GW, Millward-Sadler SJ, Hazlewood GP, Laurie JI, Gilbert HJ. Arabinanase A from Pseudomonas fluorescens subsp. cellulosa exhibits both an endo- and an exo-mode of action. Biochem J. 1997;323:547–55.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  65. Menrad K. Market and marketing of functional foods in Europe. J Food Eng. 2003;56:181–8.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  66. Milinki E, Molnár S, Kiss A, Virág D, Pénzes-Kónya E. Study of microelement accumulating characteristics of microalgae. Acta Bot Hung. 2011;53:159–67. doi:https://doi.org/10.1556/ABot.53.2011.1-2.15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  67. Moore N, Chao C, Yang LP, Storm H, Oliva HM, Saavedra JM. Effects of fructo-oligosaccharide-supplemented infant cereal: a double-blind, randomized trial. Br J Nutr. 2003;90:581–7.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  68. Moure A, Gullon P, Dominguez H, Parajo JC. Advances in the manufacture, purification and applications of xylo-oligosaccharides as food additives and nutraceuticals. Process Biochem. 2006;41:1913–23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  69. Mussatto SI, Aguilar CN, Rodrigues LR, Teixeira JA. Fructooligosaccharides and β-fructofuranosidase production by Aspergillus japonicus immobilized on lignocellulosic materials. J Mol Catal B Enzym. 2009;59:76–81.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  70. Nguyen TH, Splechtna B, Krasteva S, Kneifel W, Kulbe KD, Divne C, Haltrich D. Characterization and molecular cloning of a heterodimeric beta-galactosidase from the probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus R22. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2009;269:136–44.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  71. O’sullivan L, Murphy B, Mcloughlin P, Duggan P, Lawlor PG, Hughes H. Prebiotics from marine macroalgae for human and animal health applications. Mar Drugs. 2010;8:2038–64. doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/md8072038.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  72. Palframan R, Gibson GR, Rastall RA. Effect of pH and dose on the growth of gut bacteria on prebiotic carbohydrates in vitro. Anaerobe. 2003;8:287–92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  73. Palframan RJ, Gibson GR, Rastall RA. Effect of pH and dose on the growth of gut bacteria on prebiotic carbohydrates in vitro. Anaerobe. 2002;8:287–92.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  74. Patel S, Goyal A. Functional oligosaccharides: production, properties and applications. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2010;27:1119–28. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-010-0558-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  75. Patel S, Goyal A. Functional oligosaccharides: production, properties and applications. World J Microbial Biotechnol. 2011;27:1119–28.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  76. Perrin S, Warchol M, Grill JP, Schneider F. Fermentations of fructooligosaccharides and their components by Bifidobacteriuminfantis ATCC 15697 on batch culture in semi-synthetic medium. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;90:859–65.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  77. Placier G, Watzlawick H, Rabiller C, Mattes R. Evolved beta-galactosidases from geobacillus stearothermophilus with improved transgalactosylation yield for galacto-oligosaccharide production. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75:6312–21.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  78. Playne MJ, Crittenden RG. Galacto-oligosaccharides and other products derived from lactose. In: McSweeney PLH, Fox PF, editors. Lactose, water, salts and minor constituents. 3rd ed. New York: Springer; 2009. p. 121–201.Google Scholar
  79. Prapulla SG, Subhaprada V, Karanth NG. Microbial production of oligosaccharides: a review. Adv Appl Microbiol. 2000;47:299–343.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  80. Quigley EMM. Prebiotics and probiotics; modifying and mining the microbiota. Pharmacol Res. 2010;61:213–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  81. Rastall RA, Hotchkiss AT. Potential for the development of prebiotic oligosaccharides from biomass. In: Gillian E, Cote` GL, editors. Oligosaccharides in food and agriculture. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2003. p. 44–53.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  82. Roberfroid M. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(Suppl):1682–7.Google Scholar
  83. Roberfroid M, Slavin J. Non-digestible oligosaccharides. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2000;40:461–80.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  84. Rombouts FM, Voragen AGJ, Searle-van Leeuwen MF, Geraerds CCJM, Schols HA, Pilnik W. The arabinanases of Aspergillus niger—purification and characterisation of two α-l-arabinofuranosidases and an endo-1,5-α-l-arabinanase. Carbohydr Polym. 1988;9:25–47.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  85. Rudi K. Dynamic host–bacteria interactions during an acidotic state induction. Environ Microbiol Rep. 2010;3:101–5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  86. Rycroft CE, Jones MR, Gibson GR. A comparative in vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties of prebiotic oligosaccharides. J Appl Microbiol. 2001;91:878–87.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  87. Sako T, Matsumoto K, Tanaka R. Recent progress on research and applications of nondigestible galacto-oligosaccharides. Int Dairy J. 1999;9:69–80.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  88. Saminathan M, Sieo CC, Kalavathy R, Abdullah N, Ho YW. Effect of prebiotic oligosaccharides on growth of Lactobacillus strains used as a probiotic for chickens. Afr J Microbiol Res. 2011;5:57–64.Google Scholar
  89. Sanchez O, Guio F, Garcia D, Silva E, Caicedo L. Fructooligosaccharides production by Aspergillus sp. N74 in a mechanically agitated airlift reactor. Food Bioprod Process. 2008;86:109–15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  90. Sangeetha PT, Ramesh MN, Prapulla SG. Recent trends in the microbial production, analysis and application of fructooligosaccharides. Trends Food Sci Technol. 2005;16:442–57.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  91. Sanz ML, Gibson GR, Rastall RA. Influence of disaccharide structure on prebiotic selectivity in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:5192–9.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  92. Sheu WHH, Lee IT, Chen W. Effects of xylooligosaccharides in type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol. 2008;54:396–401.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  93. Sanz SL, Montilia A, Moreno FJ, Villamiel M. Stability of oligosaccharides derived from lactulose during the processing of milk and apple juice. Food Chem. 2015;183:64–71.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  94. Shuhaimi M, Kabier BM, Yazid AM, Somchit MN. Synbiotics growth optimization of Bifidobacteriumpseudocatenulatum G4 with prebiotics using a statistical methodology. J Appl Microbiol. 2009;106:191–8.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  95. Slevin MM, Allsopp PJ, Magee PJ, Bonham MP, Naughton VR, Strain JJ, Duffy ME, Wallace JM, Mac Sorley EM. Supplementation with calcium and short-chain fructooligosaccharides affects markers of bone turnover but not bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. J Nutr. 2014;144:297–304. doi:https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.113.188144.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  96. Spinner J. Prebiotics market to hit $ 4.8 billion by 2018. Newsletter–food production daily.com. 2013. http://www.foodproductiondaily.com/Financial/Prebiotics-market-to-hit-4.8-billion.
  97. Splechtna B, Nguyen TH, Steinbock M, Kulbe KD, Lorenz W, Haltrich D. Production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides from lactose using beta-galactosidases from Lactobacillus reuteri. J Agric Food Chem. 2006;54:4999–5006.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  98. Splechtna B, Nguyen TH, Haltrich D. Comparison between discontinuous and continuous lactose conversion processes for the production of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides using beta-galactosidase from Lactobacillus reuteri. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6772–7PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  99. Stengel DB, Connan S, Popper ZA. Algal chemodiversity and bioactivity: sources of natural variability and implications for commercial application. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29:483–501. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2011.05.016.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  100. Sulek K, Vigsnaes LK, Schmidt LR. A combined metabolomic and phylogenetic study reveals putatively prebiotic effects of high molecular weight arabino-oligosaccharides when assessed by in vitro fermentation in bacterial communities derived from humans. Anaerobe. 2014;28:68–77.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  101. Topping DL, Clifton PM. Short-chain fatty acids and human colonic function: roles of resistant starch and nonstarch polysaccharides. Physiol Rev. 2001;81:1031–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Van Laere KMJ, Beldman G, Voragen AGJ. A new arabinofuranohydrolase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis able to remove arabinosyl residues from double-substituted xylose units in arabinoxylan. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1997;47:231–5.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  103. Vander MR, Avonts L, De VL. Short fractions of oligofructose are preferentially metabolized by Bifidobacteriumanimalis DN-173 010. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2004;70:1923–30.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  104. Vigsnæs LK, Holck J, Meyer AS. In vitro fermentation of sugar beet arabino-oligosaccharides by fecal microbiota obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis to selectively stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. Appl Env Microbiol. 2011;77:8336–44.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  105. Vogel M. Alternative utilisation of sugar beet pulp. Zuckerindustrie. 1991;116:266–70.Google Scholar
  106. Voragen AGJ, Rombouts FM, Searle-van Leeuwen MF, Schols HA, Pilnik W. The degradation of arabinans by endo-arabinanase and arabinofuranosidases purified from Aspergillus niger. Food Hydrocoll. 1987;1:423–37.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  107. Wallenfels K, Malhotra OP. Beta-galactosidase. In: Boyer PD, editor. The enzymes. 2nd ed. New York: Academic Press Inc; 1960. p. 409–30.Google Scholar
  108. Wang P, Jiang X, Jiang Y, Hu X, Mou H, Li M. In vitro antioxidative activities of three marine oligosaccharides. Nat Prod Res. 2007;21:646–54. doi:https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410701371215.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  109. Weinstein L, Alber sheim P. Structure of plant cell walls. IX. Purification and partial characterization of a wall-degrading endo-arabanase and an arabinosidase from Bacillus subtilis. Plant Physiol. 1979;63:425–32.PubMedPubMed CentralView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  110. Westphal Y, Kuhnel S, Waard P, Schols SWA, Schols HA, Voragen AGJ, Gruppen H. Branched arabino-oligosaccharides isolated from sugar beet arabinan. Carbohydr Res. 2010;345:1180–9. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2010.03.042.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  111. Wu SC, Wen TN, Pan CL. Algal-oligosaccharide-lysates prepared by two bacterial agarases stepwise hydrolyzed and their anti-oxidative properties. Fish Science. 2005;71:1149–59.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  112. Yoo HD, Kim D, Park SH. Plant cell wall polysaccharides as potential resources for the development of novel prebiotics. Biomol Ther (Seoul). 2012;20:371–9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© The Author(s) 2016