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Table 1 Effect of various nutritional factors on co-production of various enzymes by A. niger APS

From: A novel multi-enzyme preparation produced from Aspergillus niger using biodegradable waste: a possible option to combat heterogeneous biofilms

Nutritional factors
Carbon Source
CMCase FPase β-Glucosidase Pectinase Mannanase Xylanase Gluco-amylase α-Amylase Alginate lyase
Enzyme activity (IU/ml)
De-oiled rice bran 1.76 ± 0.03* 0.687 ± 0.015* 0.535 ± 0.023 4.11 ± 0.07 2.31 ± 0.012 19.76 ± 0.105 27.43 ± 1.42 1228 ± 19.2 0.0
Kitchen waste 1.08 ± 0.01 1.24 ± 0.02 1.02 ± 0.02 8.52 ± 0.021 1.45 ± 0.012 19.04 ± 0.25 42.67 ± 2.25* 2652 ± 31.23 3.02 ± 0.014
Cellulose 1.68 ± 0.03 0.472 ± 0.02 0.228 ± 0.02 2.47 ± 0.015 0.0 0.0 28.26 ± 0.74 1160 ± 26.87 0.0
CMC 1.88 ± 0.04* 0.811 ± 0.02 0.647 ± 0.01 2.56 ± 0.03 2.3 ± 0.14 2.4 ± 0.081 31.23 ± 0.032 1748 ± 18.2 0.0
Guargum 1.72 ± 0.04 0.604 ± 0.01 1.77 ± 0.018 4.01 ± 0.017 5.83 ± 0.021 0.0 23.43 ± 0.76 1906 ± 24.56 0.87 ± 0.03
Pectin 1.70 ± 0.014 1.14 ± 0.014 0.849 ± 0.03 5.8 ± 0.012 4.5 ± 0.018 0.0 29.87 ± 1.06 1416 ± 21.46 0.834 ± 0.04
Cellobiose 1.37 ± 0.012 0.803 ± 0.02 0.122 ± .017 2.79 ± 0.024 0.43 ± 0.015 0.0 28.28 ± 2.26 1763 ± 28.26 0.962 ± 0.06
Lactose 1.40 ± 0.04 0.846 ± 0.02 0.080 ± 0.017 2.38 ± 0.014 0.152 ± 0.021 0.0 27.25 ± 1.12 1461 ± 23.52 1.26 ± 0.07
Glucose 1.32 ± 0.014 0.393 ± 0.02 0.251 ± 0.02 3.17 ± 0.017 0.501 ± 0.011 0.0 20.53 ± 0.98 2011 ± 38.26 2.34 ± 0.11*
Galactose 1.14 ± 0.04 0.219 ± 0.02 0.108 ± 0.014 2.32 ± 0.023 0.156 ± 0.012 0.0 27.48 ± 1.37 2139 ± 41.34 2.16 ± 0.08*
Starch 1.49 ± 0.015 0.994 ± 0.01 0.370 ± .011 3.67 ± 0.024 0.654 ± 0.018 1.43 ± 0.09 41.48 ± 3.26* 2659 ± 36.54 0.0
Salicin 0.89 ± 0.01 0.370 ± 0.05 0.108 ± 0.06 2.47 ± 0.013 0.0 0.0 4.56 ± 0.042 294 ± 6.43 0.0
Xylose 1.53 ± 0.032 0.678 ± 0.02* 0.939 ± 0.017 3.98 ± 0.014 0.686 ± 0.08 30.59 ± 1.24 18.42 ± 1.02 1288 ± 16.37 0.926 ± 0.03
Wheat bran + kitchen waste 2.61 ± 0.021 1.32 ± 0.013 2.48 ± 0.026 8.36 ± 0.024 3.42 ± 0.036 40.26 ± 0.47 41.33 ± 0.56 2632 ± 33.0 3.12 ± 0.04
Control (Wheat bran) 2.72 ± 0.02 0.683 ± 0.06 1.94 ± 0.03 5.54 ± 0.24 3.76 ± 0.01 39.05 ± 0.44 37.08 ± 0.42 1574 ± 2.50 2.16 ± 0.02
Metal ions
 CaSO4 2.94 ± 0.014 1.47 ± 0.017 2.89 ± 0.044# 10.31 ± 0.071# 4.73 ± 0.086 43.93 ± 1.02 44.02 ± 2.03 2643 ± 47 3.42 ± 0.046
 MgSO4 2.75 ± 0.03 1.61 ± 0.022 2.26 ± 0.017 11.26 ± 0.34# 6.09 ± 0.11 46.27 ± 4.3# 43.27 ± 1.87 2620 ± 53 2.87 ± 0.011
 K2HPO4 2.37 ± 0.01 0.949 ± 0.063 2.21 ± 0.026 9.72 ± 0.087# 5.88 ± 0.121 28.18 ± 1.26 44.05 ± 2.06 2094 ± 27# 2.63 ± 0.012
 KH2PO4 2.41 ± 0.21 0.917 ± 0.04 2.75 ± 0.014 10.26 ± 0.124# 4.40 ± 0.98 33.85 ± 1.068 42.87 ± 1.17 2691 ± 38.65 2.54 ± 0.011
 FeSO4 2.93 ± 0.022 1.10 ± 0.025 2.70 ± 0.11 8.31 ± 0.107 5.36 ± 1.03 40.17 ± 2.97 38.86 ± 2.37 2713 ± 29 1.87 ± 0.076#
 MnSO4 2.10 ± 0.14# 0.931 ± 0.04# 2.17 ± 0.023 9.48 ± 0.98# 5.51 ± 1.21 29.5 ± 1.27# 35.54 ± 1.42 2285 ± 23# 1.56 ± 0.011#
 ZnCl2 1.71 ± 0.023# 0.089 ± 0.02# 1.16 ± 0.07# 8.40 ± 0.031 2.35 ± 0.28 31.15 ± 0.243# 34.23 ± 0.86# 1987 ± 21# 1.42 ± 0.06#
 KCl 1.95 ± 0.012# 0.618 ± 0.031# 2.40 ± 0.11 8.36 ± 0.067 4.95 ± 0.56 20.72 ± 0.87# 38.86 ± 1.57 2485 ± 35 2.89 ± 0.013
 Control 2.64 ± 0.016 1.30 ± 0.03 2.46 ± 0.07 8.29 ± 0.083 3.37 ± 0.014 40.85 ± 1.63 41.26 ± 0.85 2612 ± 44 3.07 ± 0.016
Nitrogen sources
 Ammonium sulphate 2.07 ± 0.012 0.446 ± 0.03 2.20 ± 0.014* 11.5 ± 0.086* 3.18 ± 0.024 24.62 ± 2.03 33.04 ± 1.4* 2944.5 ± 22.58 1.83 ± 0.014
 Sodium nitrate 2.64 ± 0.012* 0.920 ± 0.04 2.18 ± 0.012* 11.81 ± 0.065* 4.23 ± 0.042 25.63 ± 1.86 29.42 ± 1.26 1220 ± 12.36 1.27 ± 0.018
 Ammonium chloride 1.57 ± 0.026 0.731 ± 0.03 1.96 ± 0.028 12.26 ± 0.102 3.08 ± 0.028 22.9 ± 1.74 35.49 ± 2.04* 3949 ± 56.75 0.86 ± 0.02
 Urea 2.07 ± 0.014 0.589 ± 0.02 1.72 ± 0.016 7.98 ± 0.27 2.79 ± 0.014 24.25 ± 1.05 30.29 ± 2.85 2807 ± 23.37* 1.13 ± 0.017
 Peptone 3.14 ± 0.060* 1.22 ± 0.01 2.25 ± 0.023* 11.04 ± 0.104 4.13 ± 0.033 37.25 ± 1.24 45.23 ± 1.22* 2692 ± 28.45* 2.13 ± 0.011
 Yeast extract 2.83 ± 0.02* 0.993 ± 0.01 1.30 ± 0.067 8.53 ± 0.47* 1.80 ± 0.04 32.65 ± 0.68 37.75 ± 1.06* 2834 ± 18.78* 1.75 ± 0.02
 CSL 3.79 ± 0.018 1.25 ± 0.012 3.76 ± 0.028 14.72 ± 0.56 7.72 ± 0.05 40.08 ± 2.02* 42.27 ± 2.84* 2740 ± 37.9* 3.17 ± 0.011*
 Soyabean meal 1.65 ± 0.012 1.26 ± 0.016 2.07 ± 0.014* 11.09 ± 0.42 4.67 ± 0.058 22.65 ± 1.28 37.24 ± 1.06* 2932 ± 25.87 1.83 ± 0.012
 Control 2.88 ± 0.035 1.56 ± 0.011 2.81 ± 0.022 10.86 ± 0.078 5.23 ± 0.034 42.23 ± 1.02 41.27 ± 2.03 2663 ± 31.66 3.26 ± 0.014
  1. In case of carbon and nitrogen sources, all the values differ from the control significantly (p < 0.001) by Dunnett’s Multiple Comparison Test except those marked with*. In case of metal salts all the values marked with# differ from the control significantly (p < 0.001) by Dunnett’s Multiple Comparison Test