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Table 2 Compounds identified from the red centipede haemolymph

From: Biologically active metabolite(s) from haemolymph of red-headed centipede Scolopendra subspinipes possess broad spectrum antibacterial activity

No. Compound Formula Structure Reported activity
1 l-Homotyrosine C10 H13 N O3 Exact structure: epithelial sodium channel blocker activity (Johnson 2015), antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa by inhibiting bacterial 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (Pascal et al. 1985), antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata by the inhibition of β-1,3-glucan synthesis (Klein et al. 2000; Zambias et al. 1992), act as matriptase inhibitors (Maiwald et al. 2016), antitumor activity (Ali et al. 2001), act as coagulation factor Xa inhibitors for treatment of cardiovascular diseases and thromboembolic events (Stürzebecher et al. 2015), antidiabetic activity (Bigge et al. 2003)
Similar structure: antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (Or 1997), antifungal activity against Candida species (Hammond et al. 1992), antiprotozoal activity against Trypanosoma b. rhodesiense (Mehner et al. 2008), anticancer activity against HT-29 and HCT-116 colorectal cancer cells (Ooi et al. 2010; Mehner et al. 2008), used for the treatment of hyperlipidemia by cholesterol absorption inhibitory activity (Alenfalk et al. 2005), anti-diabetic activity (Bigge et al. 2003), used for the treatment of autoimmune disorders (Surolia et al. 2014)
2 8-Acetoxy-4-acoren-3-one C17 H26 O3 Exact structure: this compound is the component of Acorus calamus (sweet flag) commonly found in spices (hmdb.ca), used for the treatment of epilepsy, amnesia and insomnia (Zhang et al. 2015), anti-germination activity (Nawamaki and Kuroyanagi 1996)
Similar structure: growth inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli (Chuysinuan et al. 2019), antifungal activity against plant fungal pathogen Pythium myriotylum (Liu et al. 2016), Phytophthora capsici and Pythium myriotylum (Liu et al. 2015), anti-cancer activity against prostate carcinoma and human neuroblastoma cells (Wang et al. 2014), cytotoxic activity against human gastric cancer (BGC-823 cells), cervical cancer (Hela) and human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 cells) (Xu et al. 2014), pesticidal activity (Goldblum and Warren 2018)
3 N-Undecylbenzenesulfonic acid C17 H28 O3 S Exact structure: fungicidal activity against Alternaria alternata, Chondrostereum purpureum, Phytophthora cactorum and P. infestans (Komorowska-kulik et al. 1998), possess detergent property (Petrov et al. 1958; Matsunaga et al. 1996)
Similar structure: antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (Migahed et al. 2017), anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Tanwar et al. 2016), pesticidal activity (Ichihashi and Okamura 2017; Hatamoto et al. 2016), fungicidal and herbicidal activity (Baba et al. 2014), act as UCH-L1 inhibitor useful for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer disease and Parkinson disease (Lee et al. 2013), anticancer activity against human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2 cell line) (Rojewska et al. 2013), useful for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative disease (Lee et al. 2014)
4 2-Dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid C18 H30 O3 S Exact structure: act as agrochemical fungicides against Venturia inaequalis, Botrytis cinerea, Erysiphe graminis, Phytophthora infestans, and Puccinia recondita (Ihori et al. 2018), act as AKT PH domain inhibitors hence useful for the treatment of cancer (Ahad et al. 2011)
Similar structure: antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus (Migahed et al. 2017), pesticidal activity (Ichihashi and Okamura 2017; Hatamoto et al. 2016), anti-tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Tanwar et al. 2016), act as sitagliptin (anti-diabetic agent) intermediates (Casar and Stavber 2014)
5 3H-1,2-Dithiole-3-thione C3 H2 S3 Exact structure: commonly found in brassica (Human Metabolome Database), neuroprotective effects against PC12 (pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla) cells (Zhang et al. 2018a, b), used for the treatment of ischemic stroke and possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity (Kuo et al. 2017), neurodegenerative activity (Brown et al. 2014), antiviral activity against human papilloma virus (Preston and Murphy 2015), antifungal activity against Candida species (Giannini et al. 2004), act as chemoprotective agent against cancer (Kwak et al. 2001), used for the treatment of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (Kuo et al. 2016)
Similar structure: protective effects against Alzheimer’s disease (Wang et al. 2017a, b), antioxidant activity (Koo et al. 2012), used to prevent and treat a disease caused by over activity of a liver X receptor α (LXR α) (Kim et al. 2016), used for the treatment of skin pigmentation disorders (Commo and Michard 2009), neuroprotective activity (Jia et al. 2009), act as cancer preventive agent (Tran et al. 2009), antioxidant activity (Perez-Leal et al. 2017), anti-inflammatory and anti-neurodegenerative activity (Jarrott and Williams 2016)
6 Acetylenedicarboxylate C4 H2 O4 Exact structure: act as succinate receptor agonists (Geubelle et al. 2017), act as inhibitors of bacterial urease released by Helicobacter pylori and Proteus mirabilis (Macegoniuk et al. 2017), used in the synthesis of quinoline and pyrroloquinoline derivative with anticancer activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), HepG2 (liver carcinoma) and HCT (human colon cancer) cells (Mohamede et al. 2015), used in the synthesis of anticancer compounds against human gastric carcinoma N87 cells (Zhao et al. 2016), involved in the synthesis of anti-giardia and anti-HIV agent (Al-Masoudi and Abbas 2016), involved in the synthesis of alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (Hyun et al. 2014)
Similar structure: antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (Balkovec et al. 2017), involved in the synthesis of p53 inhibitors as anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory agent (Feder et al. 2015), involved in the preparation of amanita toxins which are effective in abnormal cell growth, proliferative disorder, neuronal disorders, immunological disorders, inflammatory disorders, autoimmune disorders, destructive disorders, bone disorder, infectious disease, neurodegenerative disorder, pancreatitis or kidney disease in a mammal (Zhao et al. 2017)
7 Albuterol C13 H21 N O3 Exact structure: therapeutic agent for lymphedema (Hirata et al. 2018), used in the synthesis of anticancer agent against gastric carcinoma (Zhao et al. 2018), antidepressant activity (Avram et al. 2018), anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects (Lee et al. 2016; Hakonarson et al. 2018), used to treat cardiovascular diseases (Wang et al. 2018a, b, c), anti-diabetic activity (Pelcman and Bengtsson 2018)
Similar structure: anti-epileptic activity (Stewart et al. 2018), anti-inflammatory and anti-asthmatic effects (Alvarez-Aguilar et al. 2017), used to treat Parkinson’s disease (Scherzer 2018), used for the treatment of hypoxemia and dyspnea (Martin 2018), anti-cancer activity (Weinstein et al. 2018), used to treat cardiovascular diseases (Wang et al. 2018a, b, c)
8 Tetradecylamine C14 H31 N Exact structure: bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (Niu et al. 2018; Savage Paul 2017), pesticidal activity (Park et al. 2018), anti-inflammatory activity (Wrasidlo and Natala 2018), antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus species by inhibiting ergosterol synthesis (Chandrika, et al. 2018; Garneau-Tsodikova et al. 2018), used as a component in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of Coronary heart disease complicated with depression (Zhang et al. 2018a, b)
Similar structure: antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (Wang et al. 2018a, b, c), anticancer activity against bladder cancer T-24 cells (Wu et al. 2017), involved in the synthesis of antimycobacterial agent (Vosátka et al. 2018); anti-tubercular activity (de Castro et al. 2018), anti-inflammatory activity (Wrasidlo and Natala 2018)
9 Curcumenol C15 H22 O2 Exact structure: anti-inflammatory activity (Lee et al. 2019), antistroke agent with anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity for sepsis and leukemia, this compound is present in Curcuma longa (Turmeric) (Gupta et al. 2018), anti-proliferative activity against human gastric cancer cells (Jung et al. 2018), antibacterial activity against Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum (Kacem et al. 2016)
Similar structure: anti-skin inflammation activity (Lim et al. 2018), neuroprotective activity (Xu et al. 2018), anticancer activity against nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (Wang et al. 2018a, b), larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae (Sofian et al. 2017), cytotoxic activity against human prostate carcinoma cells, human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and human melanoma cells (Stojakowska et al. 2019), antileukemic activities against the KG1a and Molt4 cell lines (Anuchapreeda et al. 2018), anti-fungal activity against C. albicans (Li et al. 2017), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic activity (Hamidpour et al. 2015), antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, and fungus Pichia guilliermondii and Candida albicans (Kharkwala et al. 2017)
10 3-Butylidene-7-hydroxyphthalide C12 H12 O3 Exact structure: found in the roots of Angelica sinensis (AS) (Deng et al. 2006), anti-inflammatory activity (Tran et al. 2018), act as synergistic calcium antagonists for the treatment of coronary heart disease (Lei et al. 2018), cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (breast cancer), NCI-H187 (lung cancer) and KB cells (Wisetsai et al. 2018), act as pancreatic lipase inhibitor for treatment of obesity (Mo et al. 2016), used for the treatment of peptic ulcer (Chung et al. 2005), used for the treatment and prevention of diabetes mellitus (D'orazio et al. 2007)
Similar structure: free radical scavenging activity (Adil et al. 2018), active component of Angelica sinensis (AS) herb, used as the blood-nourishing tonic (Chen et al. 2017), anti-inflammatory activity (Tran et al. 2018), antioxidant and antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebseilla pneumonia, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Mucor sp., Aspergillus flavus, Penicilium expansum (Ksouri et al. 2017), neuroprotective effect on PC12 cells (Lu-Si et al. 2017), used to treat bone diseases (Wang et al. 2017a, b), prevents cancer by increase the oxygen release efficiency of Hb (Wang and Chen 2017), neuroprotective and anticancer effects against lung (A549), human colon carcinoma (HCT-8), and hepatocarcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell (Gong et al. 2016)
11 Oleoyl ethanolamide C20 H39 N O2 Exact structure: endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α) agonist (Gaetani et al. 2003), antitussive activity (Wortley et al. 2017), anti-inflammatory activity (Toguri et al. 2018), used to treat post-traumatic stress disorder by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibition (Danandeh et al. 2018), useful in the treatment of neurological disorders (Pandey et al. 2018), anti-nausea effect (Rock et al. 2017), analgesic activity (Zubrzycki et al. 2017), anticancer activity against colon cancer cells (Pagano et al. 2017)
Similar structure: anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving effects (Britti et al. 2017), useful in the treatment of inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders (Barbierato et al. 2018), anticancer activity against colon cancer cell growth (de Cedrón et al. 2018), beneficial in the treatment of HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) (Hermes et al. 2018), anticancer activity against endometrial cancer (Fonseca et al. 2018), useful in the treatment of intestinal barrier dysfunction (Antón et al. 2018)
12 Docosanedioic acid C22 H42 O4 Exact structure: plant metabolite with antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum (Bierer et al. 1995; Bierer et al. 1998), anti-HIV activity (Brinkworth and Bairlie 1992), act as bivalent histamine H2 receptor (H2R) agonists (Birnkammer et al. 2012), synthesis study (Frost et al. 2010), anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity (Gao et al. 2013)
Similar structure: antioxidant activity (Kaneria et al. 2018), skin pigmenting activity (Giuliani et al. 2015), antimalarial activity (Baba et al. 2015), deodorant component (Sato 2016), involved in the treatment of disorders including obesity and diabetes (Just et al. 2016), cosmetic component (Nomura et al. 2016)