Skip to main content

Table 1 Nutrient composition of two DDGS before and after fermentation (as air-dry basis)

From: Solid-state fermentation of distilled dried grain with solubles with probiotics for degrading lignocellulose and upgrading nutrient utilization

Item,  % CDDGS RDDGS
Unfermented Fermented Unfermented Fermented
Dry matter 89.31 ± 1.56 91.10 ± 1.93 88.06 ± 1.03 89.21 ± 1.78
Lignin 1.77 ± 0.10a 1.10 ± 0.12b 1.75 ± 1.56a 1.28 ± 1.60b
Cellulose 5.70 ± 0.62a 3.55 ± 0.51b 5.30 ± 0.50a 3.42 ± 0.27b
ADF 10.35 ± 1.68a 4.94 ± 0.43b 11.86 ± 1.38 8.78 ± 1.50
NDF 30.24 ± 2.62a 20.35 ± 2.92b 20.19 ± 1.62a 16.27 ± 0.85b
Total dietary fiber 12.15 ± 0.36 12.98 ± 0.60 11.4 ± 41.37 13.35 ± 0.52
Total starch 14.28 ± 0.95 12.99 ± 2.06 16.14 ± 2.36a 11.94 ± 0.65b
Amylopectin 9.62 ± 1.06 9.75 ± 1.92 11.87 ± 1.62a 9.00 ± 0.46b
Amylose 4.66 ± 0.52a 3.24 ± 0.33b 4.27 ± 0.77a 2.95 ± 0.20b
Crude protein 27.23 ± 0.62b 31.38 ± 0.55a 34.05 ± 0.46b 37.51 ± 0.47
TCA-SP 12.47 ± 0.44b 15.57 ± 0.64a 17.32 ± 0.64b 22.61 ± 0.98a
FAA 0.25 ± 0.04b 0.53 ± 0.05a 0.74 ± 0.06b 3.20 ± 0.35a
Small peptides 12.22 ± 0.46b 15.04 ± 0.60a 16.58 ± 0.59b 19.42 ± 0.63a
EE 5.88 ± 0.20 6.19 ± 0.28 3.06 ± 0.09 3.46 ± 0.17
Ash 4.22 ± 0.65 3.28 ± 0.43 4.81 ± 0.32 3.83 ± 0.34
Ca 0.14 ± 0.02 0.16 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.02 0.18 ± 0.02
P 0.31 ± 0.03 0.28 ± 0.01 0.29 ± 0.02a 0.17 ± 0.05b
Indispensable AA  
 Arg 1.33 ± 0.09 1.41 ± 0.06 1.12 ± 0.19 1.16 ± 0.18
 His 0.43 ± 0.02b 0.72 ± 0.03a 0.50 ± 0.02 0.48 ± 0.01
 Ile 1.21 ± 0.03 1.25 ± 0.14 1.20 ± 0.02 1.20 ± 0.06
 Leu 2.03 ± 0.08 2.14 ± 0.14 1.56 ± 0.07b 2.30 ± 0.17a
 Lys 0.47 ± 0.01b 0.56 ± 0.02a 0.40 ± 0.02b 0.56 ± 0.02a
 Met 0.49 ± 0.01b 0.53 ± 0.01a 0.36 ± 0.04b 0.65 ± 0.05a
 Phe 1.14 ± 0.12b 1.47 ± 0.13a 1.13 ± 0.17 1.36 ± 0.10
 Thr 0.91 ± 0.02 1.05 ± 0.16 0.58 ± 0.04b 1.03 ± 0.19a
 Val 1.30 ± 0.06b 1.52 ± 0.04a 1.13 ± 0.09b 1.30 ± 0.05a
Dispensable AA  
 Asp 1.81 ± 0.05b 2.23 ± 0.09a 1.25 ± 0.06b 1.44 ± 0.05a
 Ser 1.21 ± 0.02 1.22 ± 0.03 1.16 ± 0.16b 1.81 ± 0.10a
 Glu 5.00 ± 0.19b 5.42 ± 0.11a 3.87 ± 0.12b 4.26 ± 0.05a
 Gly 1.10 ± 0.01 1.16 ± 0.06 1.03 ± 0.06 1.06 ± 0.05
 Ala 1.32 ± 0.06b 1.58 ± 0.10a 1.34 ± 0.11b 2.02 ± 0.18a
 Cys 0.39 ± 0.03 0.47 ± 0.09 0.70 ± 0.03 0.77 ± 0.05
 Tyr 1.25 ± 0.05 1.32 ± 0.04 1.79 ± 0.17 1.52 ± 0.15
 Pro 1.16 ± 0.17 1.23 ± 0.04 1.14 ± 0.04 1.20 ± 0.01
Total AA 22.55 ± 0.46b 25.3 ± 10.74a 20.29 ± 0.37b 24.13 ± 0.84a
  1. Values are means of three replicates per treatment. Means in a row without common superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05)