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Table 4 Concentration of anthocyanins (glycoside forms), and anthocyanidins (aglycoside forms) during fermentation and β-glucosidase activity of S. cerevisiae

From: Assessment of changes in the content of anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and antioxidant property of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediated fermented black rice bran

Time (h) Anthocyanins (µg/g of FRB) Anthocyanidins (µg/g of FRB) β-glucosidase [relative activity (%)]
Cyanidin-3-glucoside Peonidin-3-glucoside Cyanidin Peonidin
0 324.66 ± 16.23 231.65 ± 11.58 226.73 ± 11.34 86.73 ± 4.34 16.67 ± 2.08
1 319.96 ± 12.76 219.71 ± 10.99 229.74 ± 11.49 94.49 ± 4.72* 41.67 ± 3.15
3 297.43 ± 14.87* 215.74 ± 10.79 244.16 ± 11.21 97.07 ± 3.85* 58.33 ± 3.92
6 275.23 ± 13.76* 188.38 ± 10.42*** 258.36 ± 11.92* 114.86 ± 3.74*** 85.00 ± 3.25
12 235.09 ± 15.22*** 178.49 ± 8.92*** 284.06 ± 13.20*** 121.29 ± 4.06*** 91.67 ± 4.83
18 194.93 ± 12.11*** 171.31 ± 9.57*** 309.76 ± 10.49*** 125.95 ± 4.30*** 95.00 ± 3.83
24 190.03 ± 13.25*** 163.66 ± 10.18*** 312.90 ± 11.65*** 130.93 ± 4.55*** 100.00 ± 4.00
  1. The significant difference between the anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside or peonidin-3-glucoside) or anthocyanidins (cyanidin or peonidin) at different time points (1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h) during fermentation and the respective anthocyanins or respective anthocyanidins at 0 h of fermentation were represented as * (p < 0.05), ** (p < 0.01), and *** (p < 0.001)