Gene expression profiles of genes involved with xylose utilization by
S. cerevisiae. The real-time quantitative (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the mRNA expression level of genes involved with xylose catabolism. Gene expression, calculated as fold change compared to the endogenous control gene TAF10, was determined by qRT-PCR in cells harvested at the middle of log-phase of growth. Fold change between un-evolved and evolved strains was evaluated by the 2 – ΔΔCT method. All the results were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation of at least three independent experiments.