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Table 3 The yields of water-soluble products, reducing-sugars, 5-HMF and furfural as well as concentration of reducing-sugars

From: Production of 2,3-butanediol from cellulose and Jatropha hulls after ionic liquid pretreatment and dilute-acid hydrolysis

Biomass* Yield of reducing-sugars (%)** Concentration of reducing-sugars (g/L) Yield of water-soluble products (%) Yield of 5-HMF (%)** Yield of furfural (%)**
C-9 33.6 15.1 39.5 0.4 0.1
C-15 28.7 21.5 34.8 0.4 0.1
ILC-9 80.2 36.1 90.0 1.3 1.5
ILC-15 71.2 53.4 79.3 0.7 0.7
WJH-15 47.6 22.6 35.5 0.4 1.7
ILJH-15 85.7 39.7 60.2 0.6 2.4
  1. Hydrolysis conditions: 200 mL 4 wt% H2SO4, 150°C, 1 h for cellulose; 200 mL 1.5 wt% H2SO4, 150°C, 0.5 h for Jatropha hulls.
  2. *C-9: 9 g untreated cellulose;
  3. C-15: 15 g untreated cellulose;
  4. ILC-9: 9 g ionic liquid pretreated cellulose;
  5. ILC-15: 15 g ionic liquid pretreated cellulose;
  6. WJH-15: 15 g water-washed Jatropha hulls;
  7. ILJH-15: 15 g IL-pretreated Jatropha hulls.
  8. ** Data (%) were based on total mass of cellulose and hemicellulose in substrates.