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Table 3 Fecal characteristics, metabolites, and short chain fatty acids of Murrah buffalo calves supplemented with probiotic formulation (PF) or not (CON)

From: Host-specific probiotics feeding influence growth, gut microbiota, and fecal biomarkers in buffalo calves

Item Treatment (Trt)1 SEM P Value (Trt)
CON PF
AFecal characteristics
 Fecal pH 7.44b 7.10a 0.23 0.004
 2Fecal score 2.75b 1.92a 0.45 0.030
 Fecal moisture (%) 84.56b 82.42a 1.49  < 0.001
AFecal metabolites (µmol/g of fresh feces)
 Ammonia 6.01b 5.30a 0.39 0.001
 Lactate 3.32a 4.07b 0.30  < 0.001
BFecal short chain fatty acids (µmol/g of fresh feces)
 Acetate 28.56 28.74 1.12 0.808
 Propionate 10.75a 12.08b 0.75 0.026
 Butyrate 4.60 4.82 0.45 0.433
  1. Trt treatment, SEM standard error of mean
  2. 1Treatments: Basal diet with no supplementation (CON), supplemented with L. reuteri BF-E7 + L. salivarius BF-17 (PF; 1 g/calf/day)
  3. abMeans bearing different letters in a row differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  4. AMean of three periodic collections
  5. BMean of two periodic collections; P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant
  6. 2Fecal score rating: 1 = firm feces, 2 = normal or firm-soft, 3 = moderate or soft, 4 = mild or runny diarrhea, and 5 = watery and profuse diarrhea