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Table 2 Growth performance and structural measurements of Murrah buffalo calves supplemented with probiotic formulation (PF) or not (CON)

From: Host-specific probiotics feeding influence growth, gut microbiota, and fecal biomarkers in buffalo calves

Item Treatment (Trt)1 SEM P Value (Trt)
CON PF
Initial BW (kg), d0 32.55 32.49 0.43 0.953
Final BW (kg), d30 37.71a 40.15b 0.56 0.011
Net gain in BW (kg) 5.16a 7.66b 0.62 0.028
2ADG (kg/d), 0–30 d 0.18a 0.26b 0.02 0.029
3ADMI (kg/d), 0–30 d 0.46a 0.51b 0.01 0.001
4Feed efficiency % 37.44 50.30 4.12 0.096
AStructural growth measurements
 Body length (cm) 55.97a 58.82b 1.41  < 0.001
 Heart girth (cm) 80.68a 82.23b 1.23 0.003
 Wither height (cm) 72.76a 74.04b 0.98 0.001
 Hip height (cm) 74.47a 76.44b 1.02  < 0.001
  1. BW body weight, ADG average daily gain, ADMI average dry matter intake, Trt treatment, SEM standard error of mean
  2. 1Treatments: Basal diet with no supplementation (CON), supplemented with L. reuteri BF-E7 + L. salivarius BF-17 (PF; 1 g/calf/day)
  3. abMeans bearing different letters in a row differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  4. AMean of four periodic collections; P < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant; 2ADG = (kg of final BW—kg of initial BW)/experimental days
  5. 3ADMI = (offered DM—residual DM)/experimental days
  6. 4Feed efficiency = [Average daily gain (kg/day)/Dry matter intake (kg/day)] × 100%