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Table 2 Some physicochemical parameters of the examined fish water ponds before and after application of probiotic

From: Influence of probiotics on water quality in intensified Litopenaeus vannamei ponds under minimum-water exchange

Treatments Control ponds (T1) Single spp. probiotic (T2) Multi spp. probiotic (T3) Permissible limits according to
Application to the pond Before stocking After stocking Before stocking After stocking Before stocking After stocking
Total Vibrio count (log CFU mL−1)* 3.764b ± 0.129 3.63b ± 0.137 4.408a ± 0.173 1.263c ± 0.193 4.055ab ± 0.213 0.856c ± 0.188   
Temperature (ºC)* 29.019a ± 0.123 29.271a ± 0.229 28.621a ± 0.182 29.068a ± 0.1 28.734a ± 0.13 29.068a ± 0.095 24–30 (Clifford 1997; Lucas and Southgate 2012)
Dissolved oxygen (m gL−1) 4.127d ± 0.078 4.782c ± 0.102 4.141d ± 0.077 5.965b ± 0.431 4.603 cd ± 0.017 6.541a ± 0.294 > 4 Lucas and Southgate (2012)
pH 7.614b ± 0.059 7.554bc ± 0.071 7.903a ± 0.026 6.995d ± 0.08 7.917a ± 0.017 7.314c ± 0.056 6.5–9.5 Carbajal-Hernández et al. (2012)
Salinity (g L−1) 35.355ab ± 1.499 37.590a ± 1.452 31.690ab ± 0302 34.0ab ± 0.533 30.483b ± 0.128 32.136ab ± 0.519 15–45 (Clifford 1997; Lucas and Southgate 2012)
Organic matter (m gL−1) 15.479b ± 0.216 16.298ab ± 0.194 16.103b ± 0.229 12.75c ± 0.665 16.828a ± 0.141 15.636b ± 0.626  
NH3 (m gL−1) 0.049a ± 0.003 0.026b ± 0.001 0.050a ± 0.004 0.006c ± 0.001 0.030b ± 0.002 0.005c ± 0.0001 0.01–0.09 Boyd and Zimmermann (2000)
  1. The means with different superscript letters within the same row for each parameter are significantly different at *P ≤ 0.01 and at P ≤ 0.05