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Table 2 The effect of the different types and concentrations of PGRs on the explant viability, browning, and callus induction from leaf explants of M. azedarach L.

From: Sterilization protocols and the effect of plant growth regulators on callus induction and secondary metabolites production in in vitro cultures Melia azedarach L.

Concentration of PGRs (mg/L) Viability (%) Browning (%) Callus induction (%) Callus weight (mg/explant)
3 NAA  + 1 Kin 91.33 ± 4.00ab 8.67 ± 4.00cd 18.17 ± 3.60a 455.737 ± 17.445b−e
3 NAA  + 1 BAP 83.70 ± 5.98bc 16.30 ± 0.50abc 19.00 ± 3.79a 814.529 ± 252.15b−e
3 2,4-D  + 1 Kin 88.30 ± 5.03ab 11.89 ± 3.18bcd 15.32 ± 3.89ab 66.444 ± 39.585de
3 2,4-D  + 1 BAP 90.82 ± 3.50ab 9.17 ± 3.53cd 16.00 ± 3.83ab 103.150 ± 41.373de
3 NAA  + 3 Kin 78.80 ± 6.07c 21.19 ± 4.07a 14.49 ± 3.92abc 987.000 ± 28.824bc
3 NAA  + 3 BAP 77.66 ± 6.18c 22.33 ± 4.18a 18.35 ± 3.13a 851.095 ± 30.287bcd
3 2,4-D  + 3 Kin 76.80 ± 5.23c 23.19 ± 3.43a 10.14 ± 3.46abc 78.800 ± 48.109de
3 2,4-D  + 3 BAP 83.21 ± 5.62bc 18.06 ± 3.01ab 20.15 ± 3.14a 488.714 ± 19.267b−e
5 NAA  + 1 Kin 91.97 ± 4.18ab 9.03 ± 4.18cd 11.85 ± 3.69abc 154.706 ± 83.611de
5 NAA  + 1 BAP 89.30 ± 4.07ab 10.70 ± 4.07bcd 3.67 ± 3.67bc 53.647 ± 53.647de
5 2,4-D  + 1 Kin 91.66 ± 3.76ab 8.33 ± 3.76cd 0.98 ± 0.98c 2.765 ± 2.765e
5 2,4-D  + 1 BAP 91.24 ± 4.04ab 9.93 ± 4.48bcd 10.29 ± 3.31abc 112.353 ± 53.227de
5 NAA  + 5 Kin 96.98 ± 1.65a 3.32 ± 1.58d 15.47 ± 3.68ab 222.167 ± 92.369cde
5 NAA  + 5 BAP 96.14 ± 1.84a 5.25 ± 1.91d 14.09 ± 3.41abc 1073.722 ± 63.623b
5 2,4-D  + 5 Kin 91.20 ± 5.05ab 8.79 ± 3.05cd 15.98 ± 3.46ab 1804.833 ± 85.304a
5 2,4-D  + 5 BAP 92.90 ± 3.14a 7.09 ± 3.14d 11.73 ± 2.90abc 342.063 ± 179.899b−e
  1. In each column, different letters indicate a significant difference (P ≤ 5%) according to Duncan’s Multiple-Range Tests (DMRTs)