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Table 2 The varying effects of probiotics and prebiotics, and other used drugs on gut microbiota

From: The varying effects of antibiotics on gut microbiota

Drug Medicinal use Alteration in the gut
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) To treat dyspepsia
To eradicate H. pylori in the treatment of peptic ulcer, for Gastro reflux and Barrett’s esophagus
aRothia, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and the potentially pathogenic species Escherichia coli (Jackson et al. 2016)
bShannon9s diversity
Antidepressants To balance neurotransmitters aEubacterium ramulus, Clostridium
bE. coli
Laxatives Treatment and prevention of constipation that affects up to 17% of European adults yearly aEnterobacteria and Streptococcus. Also, laxatives decrease Lactobacilli causing intestinal permeability
Oral steroids Anti inflammatory therapy aMethanogenic bacteria associated with obesity and also an escalating BMI
Drinking water of Electrochemically reduced alkaline (pH ≈ 9) To determine electrochemically reduced alkaline (pH ≈ 9) versus neutral (pH ≈ 7) drinking water (2 L/day) on human gut microbiota and host glucose metabolism aClostridiales, family Ruminococcaceae, genus Bacteroides, and species Prevotellacopri
Metformin Metformin is used to treat Type 2 diabetes E. coli is predominantly seen
Probiotics Medicinal use Alteration in the gut
Probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (5 × 109 cfu) To ameliorate the effects of antibiotic use or caesarean birth on infant microbiota Only breastfed infants showed the
aBifidobacteria
bProteobacteria and Clostridia (Korpela et al. 2018)
Auto-FMT during allo-HSCT treatment To re-establish depleted gut commensal aMicrobial diversity and reestablished the intestinal microbiota composition (Taur et al. 2018)
6 g/day prebiotics inulin-type fructans or maltodextrin To reduce febrile episodes requiring medical attention and to lower the incidence of sinusitis aBifidobacterium (with antibiotics)
bBifidobacterium (non-antibiotic) (Soldi et al. 2019)
Probiotics intervention of Bifidobacterium spp. To determine the effects of a Bifidobacteria-containing formula on the healthy human intestinal microbiome during the first year of life bBacteroides and Blautia spp. (Bazanella et al. 2017)
Synbiotics therapy To evaluate whether Synbiotic (pre- and probiotics) therapy alters the gut microbiota aBifidobacterium
bRuminococcaceae (Zuo et al. 2018)
Concomitant therapy antibiotic + probiotics regimen To investigate the effects of a commonly used anti-Helicobacter pylori concomitant therapy on the composition of the gut and throat microbiota Several alteration based on fecal culture however reverted by day 71 with the exception yeast and Bacteroides spp. (Wang et al. 2017)
Broad-spectrum (oral vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole) To test if microbiome modulation can improve oral rotavirus vaccine (RVV) immunogenicity bGut bacterial beta diversity and alters the immune response to RVV (Harris et al. 2018)
  1. aDenotes increasing or expansion
  2. bDenotes decreasing or reduction in number