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Table 1 Disc diffusion inhibition zones (IZ) minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC) of tested lichen crude extracts

From: Antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of non-cytotoxic extracts of corticolous lichens sampled in Armenia

Lichens species Crude extractsa Test microbes, IZ [Ø (mm)], MIC (mg mL− 1) and MBC/MFC (mg mL− 1)
B. subtilis S. aureus E. coli P. aeruginosa S. typhymurium C. albicans
IZ MIC MBC IZ MIC MBC IZ MIC MBC IZ MIC MBC IZ MIC MBC IZ MIC MFC
R. sinensis M 25 ± 0.5 0.9 0.9 15 ± 0.5 1.8 1.8 1.5 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 2.0 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 1.5 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 0 nd nd
E 23 ± 0.5 nd nd 12 ± 0.5 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd 1.2 ± 0.3 nd nd 1.2 ± 0.3 nd nd 0 nd nd
A 21 ± 0.5 nd nd 13 ± 0.5 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd 0 nd nd
W 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd
R. farinacea M 23 ± 0.5 1.8 1.8 15 ± 0.5 3.75 3.75 1.2 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 1.5 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 1.0 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 0 nd nd
E 21 ± 0.5 nd nd 11 ± 0.5 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 1.2 ± 0.3 nd nd 0 nd nd
A 19 ± 0.5 nd nd 10 ± 0.5 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd 0 nd nd
W 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd
E. prunastri M 19 ± 0.5 3.75 3.75 17 ± 0.5 3.75 3.75 < 1 nd nd 1.3 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 < 1 > 7.5 > 7.5 0 nd nd
E 15 ± 0.5 nd nd 14 ± 0.5 nd nd < 1 nd nd 1.1 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
A 10 ± 0.5 nd nd 9 ± 0.5 nd nd < 1 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
W 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd
F. caperata M 17 ± 0.5 7.5 > 7.5 19 ± 0.5 3.75 3.75 < 1 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 - - 1.8 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 0 nd nd
E 15 ± 0.5 nd nd 16 ± 0.5 nd nd 0 nd nd < 1 nd nd 1.2 ± 0.3 nd nd 0 nd nd
A 12 ± 0.5 nd nd 14 ± 0.5 nd nd 0 nd nd < 1 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd 0 nd nd
W 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd
P. subrudecta M 15 ± 0.5 7.5 > 7.5 10 ± 0.5 > 7.5 > 7.5 1.0 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 1.6 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
E 10 ± 0.5 nd nd 8 ± 0.5 nd nd 1.3 ± 0.3 nd nd 1.2 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
A 9 ± 0.5 nd nd 7 ± 0.5 nd nd 1.5 ± 0.3 nd nd 1.3 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
W 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd
P. furfuracea M 15 ± 0.5 7.5 > 7.5 8 ± 0.5 > 7.5 > 7.5 < 1 nd nd 1.5 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 1.2 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 12 ± 0.5 3.75 > 7.5
E 7 ± 0.5 nd nd 6 ± 0.5 nd nd < 1 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd 1.2 ± 0.3 nd nd 0 nd nd
A 9 ± 0.5 nd nd 3 ± 0.5 nd nd < 1 nd nd 1.2 ± 0.3 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd 0 nd nd
W 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd
P. sulcata M 13 ± 0.5 7.5 > 7.5 9 ± 0.5 7.5 > 7.5 < 1 nd nd 1.4 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 1.2 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 0 nd nd
E 9 ± 0.5 nd nd 8 ± 0.5 nd nd 0 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
A 8 ± 0.5 nd nd 5 ± 0.5 nd nd 0 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
W 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd
P. praetextata M 13 ± 0.5 7.5 > 7.5 10 ± 0.5 7.5 > 7.5 < 1 nd nd 1.2 ± 0.3 > 7.5 > 7.5 < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
E 9 ± 0.5 nd nd 9 ± 0.5 nd nd 0 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
A 9 ± 0.5 nd nd 7 ± 0.5 nd nd 0 nd nd 1.0 ± 0.3 nd nd < 1 nd nd 0 nd nd
W 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd 0 nd nd
PCb 32 ± 0.5 0.25 0.5 28 ± 0.5 0.3 0.5 20 ± 0.5 0.5 1.5 25 ± 0.5 0.3 0.5 23 ± 0.5 1 2.5 20 ± 0.5 1.75 4
  1. nd not determined
  2. aExtracts: M—methanol, E—ethanol, A—acetone, W—water
  3. bPC: positive control, for IZ: gentamicin (10 µg mL− 1) for bacteria, nystatin 20 µg mL− 1 for yeasts; for MIC and MBC/MFC: gentamicin (range 2–0.003 µg mL− 1) for bacteria, nystatin (range 4–0.125 µg mL− 1) for yeasts