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Table 1 Characteristics of raw wastewater and effluent from wastewater treatment plant

From: Advanced treatment of effluent extended aeration process using biological aerated filter (BAF) with natural media: modification in media, design and backwashing process

Parameter Mean raw wastewater EPA standards Mean effluent
pH 7.8 6–9 8.1
Temperature 20 ± 19 2 ± 18
TSS (mg/L) 15 ± 970 5 5 ± 90
DO (mg/L) 20 ± 0.75 2 2 ± 2
BOD5 (mg/L) 20 ± 320 10 15 ± 100
COD (mg/L) 25 ± 440 100 15 ± 198
\({\text{NO}}_{3}^{ - }\) (mg/L) 10 ± 76 50 5 ± 30
\({\text{PO}}_{4}^{ - }\) (mg/L) 12 ± 45 6 5 ± 30
Turbidity (NTU) 50 2 ± 10
Color (TCU) 45 ± 890 550 5 ± 105
Sulfate (mg/L) 57 ± 1050 1500 20 ± 600
Coliforms (MPN) 1000 ± 1 × 107 1000 100 ± 1660
Amoxicillin (mg/L) 3 ± 15 3 ± 10
Azithromycin (mg/L) 20 ± 3 0.3 ± 1.5