Skip to main content

Table 2 Analyzed nutrient composition of uninoculated SBM and FSBM during two-stage fermentation

From: Nutritional quality improvement of soybean meal by Bacillus velezensis and Lactobacillus plantarum during two-stage solid- state fermentation

Item (%) SBM 0 h FSBM 24 h1 FSBM 48 h2 FSBM 72 h3
DM 93.35 ± 0.46a 92.79 ± 0.42ab 91.84 ± 0.96bc 90.88 ± 0.66c
CP 47.28 ± 0.34c 51.08 ± 0.23b 52.36 ± 0.58a 51.97 ± 0.44a
TCA-SP 5.07 ± 0.06d 10.53 ± 0.10c 11.58 ± 0.13b 11.79 ± 0.13a
Crude fibre 5.29 ± 0.08b 5.72 ± 0.08a 5.40 ± 0.07b 5.14 ± 0.05c
Cellulose3 7.42 ± 0.08a 5.95 ± 0.09b 5.88 ± 0.09b 5.78 ± 0.10b
Hemicellulose4 19.90 ± 0.14a 14.33 ± 0.09b 12.59 ± 0.22c 12.11 ± 0.15d
Ash 6.16 ± 0.06d 6.58 ± 0.07a 6.38 ± 0.06b 6.27 ± 0.03c
Ca 0.33 ± 0.01c 0.35 ± 0.01ab 0.36 ± 0.01a 0.34 ± 0.01bc
Total P 0.61 ± 0.01c 0.71 ± 0.01a 0.70 ± 0.01a 0.69 ± 0.01b
Indispensable AA
 Arg 3.18 ± 0.04 3.25 ± 0.01 3.40 ± 0.23 3.37 ± 0.13
 His 1.09 ± 0.02b 1.25 ± 0.01a 1.25 ± 0.09a 1.26 ± 0.06a
 Ile 1.99 ± 0.05 2.24 ± 0.01 2.19 ± 0.14 2.20 ± 0.11
 Leu 3.62 ± 0.04 4.03 ± 0.03 3.95 ± 0.29 3.95 ± 0.19
 Lys 2.54 ± 0.02 2.78 ± 0.01 2.72 ± 0.18 2.72 ± 0.13
 Met 0.265 ± 0.01 0.32 ± 0.03 0.35 ± 0.04 0.31 ± 0.04
 Phe 2.09 ± 0.02 2.42 ± 0.02 2.36 ± 0.23 2.39 ± 0.11
 Thr 1.76 ± 0.03b 2.00 ± 0.01a 2.01 ± 0.06a 2.01 ± 0.01a
 Val 2.14 ± 0.07 2.41 ± 0.03 2.38 ± 0.16 2.36 ± 0.11
Dispensable AA
 Asp 5.14 ± 0.01b 5.69 ± 0.03a 5.59 ± 0.35ab 5.72 ± 0.07a
 Ser 2.17 ± 0.02b 2.45 ± 0.01a 2.40 ± 0.16ab 2.39 ± 0.09ab
 Glu 7.89 ± 0.01b 9.53 ± 0.06a 9.07 ± 0.56a 9.05 ± 0.33a
 Gly 1.94 ± 0.04b 2.19 ± 0.01a 2.16 ± 0.14a 2.22 ± 0.01a
 Ala 1.98 ± 0.04 2.23 ± 0.02 2.22 ± 0.16 2.24 ± 0.10
 Cys 0.41 ± 0.01b 0.53 ± 0.01a 0.49 ± 0.06ab 0.50 ± 0.06ab
 Tyr 1.21 ± 0.02b 1.38 ± 0.01ab 1.40 ± 0.13ab 1.42 ± 0.07a
 Pro 2.33 ± 0.03b 2.47 ± 0.02ab 2.54 ± 0.24ab 2.69 ± 0.01a
 Total AA 41.72 ± 0.40b 47.14 ± 0.14a 46.47 ± 3.20ab 46.77 ± 1.67ab
  1. Values are means of three replicates per treatment. Means in a row without common superscript differ significantly (P < 0.05)
  2. 1 FSBM 24 h: the soybean meal was inoculated with B. velezensis 157 and fermented at 37 °C for 24 h
  3. 2 FSBM 48 h: the first-stage fermentation was inoculated with B. velezensis 157, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, then were inoculated with L. plantarum BLCC2-0015 and fermented under anaerobic conditions at 37 °C for another 24 h
  4. 3 FSBM 72 h: the first-stage fermentation was inoculated with B. velezensis 157, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, then were inoculated with L. plantarum BLCC2-0015 and fermented under anaerobic conditions at 37 °C for another 48 h
  5. 4 Cellulose = ADF − residue after 72% sulfuric acid treatment
  6. 5 Hemicellulose = NDF − ADF