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Table 3 Water physicochemical and microbiological properties before and after the bioprocess

From: Development and testing of a 3D-printable polylactic acid device to optimize a water bioremediation process

  Before treatment After treatment % remediation Reference valuea
  UcS CfS UcS CfS
pH 7.5 7.75 7.5    6–9
Turbidity (NTU) 110 44.5 40    
Nitrites (mg/L) 1.1 0.03 0.05 97.3 95.5 10
Ammoniacal nitrogen (mg/L) 11 0.099 0.2 99.1 98.2 1.5
Nitrates (mg/L) 16 10.5 0.9 34.4 94.4 < 10
Lead (µg/L) 14 ND 10 100 28.6 50
Total phosphorus (µg/L) 390 0.95 24 99.8 93.8 100
Denitrification rate   1095 2692    
Aerobic mesophyll bacteria (CFU/L) 4,732,000 33,000 730,000 99 84 1,000,000
Total coliforms (CFU/100 mL) 1,141,000 20 360,000 99 68 1000
  1. aReference values according to EPA 2011. UD undetectable. Remediation percentages were calculated as described in “Materials and methods