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Table 2 Antibacterial drugs and NPs loaded in TiO2 nanotubes

From: Antibacterial potential associated with drug-delivery built TiO2 nanotubes in biomedical implants

NPs/drugs Target bacteria Results References
Antimicrobial peptides Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis Eradication of bacterial growth in vitro; killing of 99.9% of the bacteria; reduction of bacterial adhesion; activity against planktonic and adhered bacteria; absence of cytotoxicity to osteoblasts and cytocompatibility Kazemzadeh-Narbat et al. (2013), Ma et al. (2012), Zhang et al. (2017), Li et al. (2017)
Gentamicin Staphylococcus epidermidis Significant reduction of bacterial adhesion; drug release from nanotubes grown on the ultrafine-grained (UFG) titanium is slower than grown on the coarse-grained (CG) titanium Popat et al. (2007), Nemati and Hadjizadeh (2017)
Gentamicin/chitosan S. aureus Inhibition of bacterial adherence, enhance of cell viability and maintenance of drug release Feng et al. (2016)
Vancomycin S. aureus Biocompatibility and reduction of bacterial adhesion; long release time and bacterial inhibition Zhang et al. (2013), Ionita et al. (2017)
Penicillin ND Biocompatibility and decrease of bacterial cell functions Yao and Webster (2009)
Zn S. aureus, Streptococcus mutans Inhibition of bacterial proliferation and viability; morphological change, inhibition of proliferation and adhesion of macrophages Yao et al. (2018), Roguska et al. (2018)
Sr/Ag2O S. aureus Antibacterial effect, osteogenic and angiogenic activities Chen et al. (2017)
Sr/Ag Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus, Escherichia coli Antibacterial and anti-adherent properties; absence of cytotoxicity Cheng et al. (2016)
Cu S. aureus, E. coli Reduction of bacterial adhesion Rosenbaum et al. (2017)
Au S. aureus, E. coli Antibacterial effects against the bacteria for a total time of 21 days; cytocompatibility with osteoblasts; alteration of bacterial membrane; moderated antibacterial effect Wang et al. (2017a, b, c), Wang et al. (2016), Li et al. (2014), Yang et al. (2016)
Carbon S. aureus, E. coli Increase of antibacterial effects after an electric induction; cytocompatibility with osteoblasts Wang et al. (2018)
Ag S. aureus, E. coli, S. mutans, ND Bacterial killing and inhibition of bacterial adhesion; kill all bacteria suspension at the first days and have the ability to prevent the bacterial adhesion in the next days; effectively kill bacteria even after immersion for 28 days; absence of cytotoxicity; growth inhibition of oral pathogens; biocompatibility in vivo and in vitro; reduction of inflammatory responses in vivo; adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts Zhao et al. (2011), Gao et al. (2014), Roguska et al. (2018), Mei et al. (2014), Uhm et al. (2014), Piszczek et al. (2017), Esfandiari et al. (2014)
Ca/P/Ag S. aureus Inhibition of bacterial growth; enhancing of adhesion and spreading of osteoblasts (Li et al. 2015)
  1. NPs nanoparticles, ND not determined