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Table 3 Comparison of volatile components produced in inoculated and non-inoculated roots of P. aduncum (Mean standard deviation)

From: Effects of inoculation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the composition of the essential oil, plant growth, and lipoxygenase activity of Piper aduncum L.

Compound RIcalc RIlit 30 dpia 60 dpia 90 dpia
Control AMF Control AMF Control AMF
n-Octane 782 800   2.43 ± 1.18   0.10 ± 0.10 0.03 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.04
α-Thujene 918 924    0.13 ± 0.23 0.46 ± 0.14 0.27 ± 0.37 0.33 ± 0.10
Camphene 934 946 0.39 ± 0.42 0.07 ± 0.13 1.06 ± 0.94 1.86 ± 0.45 2.77 ± 0.40 1.68 ± 0.34
Sabinene 963 969    0.05 ± 0.08 0.25 ± 0.06 0.16 ± 0.23 0.18 ± 0.31
Myrcene 973 988   0.02 ± 0.03   0.16 ± 0.14   
β-Pinene 974 974     0.07 ± 0.13 0.17 ± 0.23 0.30 ± 0.03
δ-3-Carene 998 1008 0.25 ± 0.24   0.71 ± 1.00 1.77 ± 0.46 1.20 ± 0.23 0.82 ± 0.54
p-Cymene 1013 1020       
Limonene 1018 1024    0.06 ± 0.10 0.22 ± 0.15 0.16 ± 0.03 0.30 ± 0.23
(Z)-β-Ocimene 1033 1032 0.05 ± 0.09   0.26 ± 0.29 0.58 ± 0.06 0.86 ± 0.30 0.68 ± 0.19
(E)-β-Ocimene 1043 1044 0.05 ± 0.09   0.08 ± 0.14 0.34 ± 0.06 0.77 ± 0.21 0.57 ± 0.24
p-Mentha-2,4(8)-diene 1074 1085     0.04 ± 0.04   0.05 ± 0.04
Linalool 1090 1095       0.07 ± 0.06
allo-Ocimene 1119 1128     0.09 ± 0.01 0.09 ± 0.13 0.79 ± 1.32
Camphor 1138 1141 0.49 ± 0.30 0.10 ± 0.10 0.43 ± 0.52 1.28 ± 0.66 1.34 ± 1.89 0.11 ± 0.03
Camphene hydrate 1147 1145    0.01 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0.04 0.06 ± 0.08 0.09 ± 0.02
Isoborneol 1147 1155 0.12 ± 0.21   0.15 ± 0.26 0.62 ± 0.29 0.43 ± 0.60 0.39 ± 0.13
Borneol 1156 1165    0.06 ± 0.11 0.06 ± 0.05 0.06 ± 0.08 0.04 ± 0.04
Citral 1170 1174      0.04 ± 0.06 0.02 ± 0.03
Terpinen-4-ol 1172 1174       0.04 ± 0.03
α-Terpineol 1187 1186 0.02 ± 0.03   0.04 ± 0.08 0.13 ± 0.04 0.14 ± 0.00 0.16 ± 0.02
Piperitone 1246 1249    0.06 ± 0.10 0.14 ± 0.09 0.04 ± 0.06 0.08 ± 0.14
Safrole 1282 1285 0.05 ± 0.04   0.06 ± 0.05 0.10 ± 0.12 0.07 ± 0.01 0.22 ± 0.15
δ-Elemene 1333 1335 0.11 ± 0.04 0.13 ± 0.16 0.52 ± 0.26 0.36 ± 0.25 0.40 ± 0.23 0.29 ± 0.04
α-Cubebene 1342 1345    0.04 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.07 0.03 ± 0.04 0.02 ± 0.03
Cyclosativene 1365 1369 0.17 ± 0.14   0.42 ± 0.10 0.28 ± 0.17 0.34 ± 0.03 0.32 ± 0.03
α-Copaene 1372 1374 1.20 ± 0.51 0.30 ± 0.12 2.35 ± 0.32 1.34 ± 0.62 1.91 ± 0.22 1.63 ± 0.24
β-Cubebene 1385 1387    0.12 ± 0.11   0.27 ± 0.12  
β-Elemene 1386 1389 0.26 ± 0.19 0.02 ± 0.03 0.59 ± 0.18 0.65 ± 0.41 0.34 ± 0.18 0.58 ± 0.08
cis-α-Bergamotene 1411 1411    0.01 ± 0.01    
β-Caryophyllene 1416 1417 1.50 ± 0.39 0.53 ± 0.16 3.00 ± 0.09 2.35 ± 1.01 1.93 ± 0.27 2.03 ± 0.08
β-Copaene 1427 1430 0.22 ± 0.23 0.08 ± 0.08 0.99 ± 0.08 0.70 ± 0.36 0.60 ± 0.16 0.64 ± 0.05
γ-Muurolene 1428 1478 0.21 ± 0.36      
trans-α-Bergamotene 1430 1432 0.02 ± 0.03   0.08 ± 0.04 0.07 ± 0.08 0.03 ± 0.04 0.05 ± 0.04
Aromadendrene 1435 1439    0.03 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.05   
cis-Muurola-3,5-diene 1442 1448 0.02 ± 0.03   0.04 ± 0.06    
6,9-Guaiadiene 1443 1442     0.16 ± 0.10 0.13 ± 0.09 0.14 ± 0.02
trans-Muurola-3,5-diene 1445 1451 0.02 ± 0.03   0.03 ± 0.03 0.02 ± 0.03   
allo-Aromadendrene 1448 1458      0.05 ± 0.07 0.06 ± 0.01
α-Humulene 1452 1452 0.40 ± 0.21 0.15 ± 0.08 0.90 ± 0.38 0.83 ± 0.50 0.69 ± 0.22 0.72 ± 0.04
(E)-β-Farnesene 1452 1454    0.14 ± 0.24    
β-Santalene 1456 1457 0.06 ± 0.06   0.17 ± 0.09 0.18 ± 0.11 0.11 ± 0.04 0.13 ± 0.01
trans-Cadina-1(6),4-diene 1469 1475    0.02 ± 0.04 0.06 ± 0.05   1.34 ± 1.68
α-Neocallitropsene 1472 1474      0.08 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.05
γ-Curcumene 1476 1481    0.68 ± 1.12 0.05 ± 0.05   
Germacrene D 1477 1484 1.16 ± 0.58 0.37 ± 0.16 1.39 ± 1.23 1.60 ± 0.67 1.59 ± 0.48 1.64 ± 0.12
β-Selinene 1486 1489     0.05 ± 0.05   
γ-Muurolene 1488 1478    0.03 ± 0.05    
trans-Muurola-4(14),5-diene 1489 1493    0.05 ± 0.08 0.11 ± 0.06   0.05 ± 0.04
α-Selinene 1492 1498 0.03 ± 0.05   0.06 ± 0.10    
Bicyclogermacrene 1492 1500 0.04 ± 0.06   0.19 ± 0.22 0.42 ± 0.27 0.22 ± 0.13 0.25 ± 0.02
α-Muurolene 1495 1500 0.10 ± 0.09   0.29 ± 0.07 0.26 ± 0.13 0.20 ± 0.04 0.23 ± 0.03
Pentadecane 1499 1500 0.21 ± 0.09 0.15 ± 0.12 0.41 ± 0.07 0.23 ± 0.10 0.19 ± 0.02 0.27 ± 0.06
β-Bisabolene 1505 1505 0.02 ± 0.03   0.08 ± 0.07 0.08 ± 0.09 0.07 ± 0.02 0.13 ± 0.06
β-Curcumene 1507 1514 0.02 ± 0.03   0.06 ± 0.07 0.10 ± 0.06 0.03 ± 0.04 0.04 ± 0.03
γ-Cadinene 1510 1513    0.02 ± 0.04 0.05 ± 0.05   
Cubebol 1513 1514     0.18 ± 0.31 0.28 ± 0.39  
α-Cadinene 1515 1537 0.28 ± 0.12 0.05 ± 0.05 0.28 ± 0.48 0.39 ± 0.42   
Myristicin 1519 1517 17.45 ± 2.09 10.52 ± 2.95 18.38 ± 1.01 19.93 ± 1.13 19.25 ± 1.46 18.47 ± 0.91
(E)-γ-Bisabolene 1524 1529    0.05 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.04 0.02 ± 0.03
trans-Cadina-1.4-diene 1529 1533    0.04 ± 0.04 0.10 ± 0.05 0.03 ± 0.04 0.05 ± 0.05
α-Cadinene 1535 1537     0.02 ± 0.03   
α-Copaen-11-ol 1539 1539 0.03 ± 0.05   0.14 ± 0.14 0.28 ± 0.09 0.16 ± 0.11 0.20 ± 0.08
Elemicin 1545 1555 2.23 ± 1.16 0.28 ± 0.36 2.22 ± 0.33 3.13 ± 0.43 3.56 ± 1.06 3.92 ± 0.75
(E)-Nerolidol 1559 1561 0.06 ± 0.06   0.13 ± 0.11 0.35 ± 0.22 0.17 ± 0.24 0.27 ± 0.10
Spathulenol 1573 1577     0.08 ± 0.09   
Germacrene D-4-ol 1574 1574      0.05 ± 0.07  
Caryophyllene oxide 1575 1582 0.02 ± 0.03   0.06 ± 0.05 0.19 ± 0.12 0.08 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.02
6-Methoxyelemicin 1579 1595 0.02 ± 0.03    0.21 ± 0.14 0.18 ± 0.25 0.35 ± 0.18
Viridiflorol 1592 1592     0.06 ± 0.10   
Humulene epoxide II 1607 1608     0.02 ± 0.03   
Dillapiole 1618 1620 71.65 ± 7.30 84.65 ± 2.66 61.12 ± 6.71 54.15 ± 6.56 54.27 ± 5.32 51.96 ± 5.88
1-epi-Cubenol 1627 1627    0.13 ± 0.12    
Muurola-4,10(14)-dien-1-β-ol 1636 1630     0.15 ± 0.25   
α-epi-Muurolol 1649 1640     0.08 ± 0.09   
α-Cadinol 1660 1652    0.01 ± 0.02 0.06 ± 0.07   0.02 ± 0.03
Apiole 1670 1677 0.64 ± 0.40 0.06 ± 0.11 0.85 ± 0.37 1.72 ± 0.68 1.59 ± 0.78 1.78 ± 0.37
Monoterpene hydrocarbons 0.74 ± 0.84 0.09 ± 0.16 2.35 ± 2.78 5.84 ± 1.70 6.45 ± 2.13 5.70 ± 3.34
Oxygenated monoterpenes 0.63 ± 0.54 0.10 ± 0.10 0.75 ± 1.09 2.27 ± 1.17 2.11 ± 2.77 0.93 ± 3.34
Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 5.84 ± 3.18 1.63 ± 0.84 12.67 ± 5.73 10.35 ± 5.79 9.05 ± 2.51 10.41 ± 2.82
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes 0.13 ± 0.17   0.52 ± 0.48 1.56 ± 1.51 0.77 ± 0.86 0.63 ± 0.24
Phenylpropanoids 92.04 ± 11.02 95.51 ± 6.08 82.63 ± 8.47 79.24 ± 9.06 78.92 ± 8.88 76.70 ± 8.24
Others 0.21 ± 0.09 2.58 ± 1.30 0.41 ± 0.07 0.33 ± 0.20 0.22 ± 0.06 0.41 ± 0.10
Total 99.59 ± 15.84 99.91 ± 8.48 99.33 ± 18.62 99.59 ± 19.43 97.52 ± 17.21 94.78 ± 18.08
  1. dpi: Days post inoculation; Control: P. aduncum non-inoculated with AMF; AMF: P. aduncum inoculated with AMF; RIcal: Retention index calculated; RIlit: Retention Index of Library
  2. * Statistical difference according to Bonferroni test (p < 0.05)
  3. aMicrosoftean ± standard deviation (n = 3)