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Table 2 Comparison of volatile components produced in inoculated and non-inoculated leaves of P. aduncum (Mean standard deviation)

From: Effects of inoculation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the composition of the essential oil, plant growth, and lipoxygenase activity of Piper aduncum L.

Compound RIcalc RIlit 30 dpia 60 dpia 90 dpia
Control AMF Control AMF Control AMF
α-Thujene 931 924     0.33 ± 0.47 0.48 ± 0.67 0.63 ± 0.35
β-Pinene 976 974     0.21 ± 0.30 0.15 ± 0.21 0.22 ± 0.23
Sabinene 977 969     0.24 ± 0.34 0.79 ± 0.53 0.84 ± 0.03
α-Phellandrene 996 1002      0.14 ± 0.20 0.18 ± 0.01
δ-2-Carene 1006 1001       0.08 ± 0.01
δ-3-Carene 1015 1008      0.06 ± 0.08  
Limonene 1028 1024     0.32 ± 0.33 0.21 ± 0.29 0.33 ± 0.29
(Z)-β-Ocimene 1032 1032   0.02 ± 0.00   1.10 ± 0.21 2.07 ± 0.33 2.59 ± 0.02
(E)-β-Ocimene 1043 1044   0.12 ± 0.00   2.84 ± 0.01 6.58 ± 2.03 6.76 ± 0.41
γ-Terpinene 1046 1054     0.27 ± 0.38 0.21 ± 0.05 0.41 ± 0.21
Terpinolene 1084 1086       0.34 ± 0.00
allo-Ocimene 1126 1128     0.62 ± 0.03   1.64 ± 0.16
Terpinen-4-ol 1179 1174   0.11 ± 0.24   0.36 ± 0.30 0.32 ± 0.24 0.56 ± 0.27
Piperitone 1246 1249 0.04 ± 0.05 0.43 ± 0.92 0.16 ± 0.23 1.40 ± 1.00 1.12 ± 0.75 1.38 ± 1.23
α-Terpinyl formate 1252 1306       0.41 ± 0.07
Safrole 1282 1285 0.01 ± 0.01   0.04 ± 0.01 0.19 ± 0.27 0.04 ± 0.06  
δ-Elemene 1324 1335 0.08 ± 0.06 0.28 ± 0.28 0.54 ± 0.07 1.66 ± 0.08 2.33 ± 0.49 2.38 ± 1.07
α-Cubebene 1344 1345     0.05 ± 0.01   0.04 ± 0.04
α-Ylangene 1366 1373   0.04 ± 0.05 0.05 ± 0.06 0.59 ± 0.13 0.38 ± 0.06 0.54 ± 0.17
α-Copaene 1368 1374   0.25 ± 0.28 0.17 ± 0.19 1.13 ± 0.27 0.40 ± 0.57 0.99 ± 0.01
β-Elemene 1382 1389 0.14 ± 0.08 0.35 ± 0.16 0.73 ± 0.01 1.92 ± 0.36 1.71 ± 0.04 2.06 ± 0.59
n-Tetradecane 1399 1400     0.05 ± 0.01   0.02 ± 0.01
β-Caryophyllene 1412 1417 0.27 ± 0.05 2.62 ± 1.03 2.16 ± 0.95 5.58 ± 0.76 5.00 ± 0.18 4.84 ± 0.54
γ-Elemene 1422 1434 0.23 ± 0.16 0.50 ± 0.24 0.45 ± 0.63 2.18 ± 0.58 2.07 ± 0.08 2.23 ± 0.64
β-Copaene 1430 1430    0.42 ± 0.59 0.05 ± 0.01   0.03 ± 0.04
Aromadendrene 1435 1439     0.13 ± 0.08 0.05 ± 0.01 0.10 ± 0.03
6,9-Guaiadiene 1438 1442     0.11 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.01 0.11 ± 0.05
Isogermacrene D 1441 1445   0.01 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.00 0.35 ± 0.06 0.29 ± 0.01 0.40 ± 0.13
α-Humulene 1452 1452 0.05 ± 0.07 0.62 ± 0.47 0.72 ± 0.31 2.38 ± 0.11 1.50 ± 0.18 1.73 ± 0.24
allo-Aromadendrene 1456 1458   0.01 ± 0.03   0.29 ± 0.11 0.19 ± 0.07 0.24 ± 0.01
Dauca-5,8-diene 1469 1471   0.02 ± 0.04   0.07 ± 0.01   0.06 ± 0.04
γ-Muurolene 1472 1478     0.26 ± 0.04 0.13 ± 0.01 0.17 ± 0.12
Germacrene D 1474 1484 1.28 ± 0.78 2.78 ± 0.94 3.19 ± 0.08 5.49 ± 1.32 6.50 ± 0.45 3.84 ± 0.73
β-Selinene 1485 1489   0.02 ± 0.04   1.33 ± 1.34 0.07 ± 0.10 0.20 ± 0.06
α-Selinene 1485 1498    0.02 ± 0.02    
Viridiflorene 1488 1496     0.17 ± 0.02 0.14 ± 0.09 0.19 ± 0.16
Bicyclogermacrene 1492 1500 0.23 ± 0.18 0.36 ± 0.40 0.70 ± 0.04 2.15 ± 0.34 2.56 ± 0.59 2.74 ± 0.69
α-Muurolene 1495 1500   0.06 ± 0.08 0.14 ± 0.00 0.59 ± 0.11 0.24 ± 0.33 0.61 ± 0.21
n-Pentadecane 1496 1500 0.78 ± 0.29 2.28 ± 0.46 1.66 ± 1.07 3.77 ± 0.95 2.48 ± 0.23  
(E,E)-α-Farnesene 1502 1505   0.05 ± 0.11 0.07 ± 0.04 0.50 ± 0.18 0.17 ± 0.07 0.19 ± 0.01
γ-Cadinene 1509 1513 0.01 ± 0.01 0.02 ± 0.04 0.06 ± 0.04 0.32 ± 0.06 0.16 ± 0.02 0.54 ± 0.08
δ-Cadinene 1514 1522 0.07 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.21 0.19 ± 0.02 0.85 ± 0.05 0.53 ± 0.14 0.57 ± 0.42
Myristicin 1517 1517 1.53 ± 0.41 0.61 ± 0.60 2.71 ± 1.11 4.70 ± 0.11 3.26 ± 0.88 2.41 ± 2.32
7-epi-α-Selinene 1526 1520       0.01 ± 0.01
trans-Cadina-1.4-diene 1529 1533     0.11 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0.00 0.05 ± 0.04
α-Cadinene 1533 1537     0.06 ± 0.01   0.06 ± 0.02
α-Calacorene 1538 1544   0.01 ± 0.03   0.22 ± 0.13 0.05 ± 0.06 0.11 ± 0.06
Elemol 1542 1548       0.07 ± 0.14
Germacrene B 1554 1559     0.07 ± 0.01 0.05 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.08
(E)-Nerolidol 1559 1561    0.08 ± 0.11 0.41 ± 0.10 0.17 ± 0.01 0.34 ± 0.08
Palustrol 1566 1567     0.04 ± 0.05 0.02 ± 0.03 0.06 ± 0.04
Spathulenol 1573 1577    0.12 ± 0.16 0.40 ± 0.57   0.23 ± 0.00
Caryophyllene oxide 1578 1582 0.065 ± 0.09 0.05 ± 0.10 0.12 ± 0.06 0.79 ± 0.48 0.27 ± 0.19 0.30 ± 0.42
Globulol 1582 1590     0.09 ± 0.05   0.11 ± 0.04
Viridiflorol 1591 1592     0.23 ± 0.12 0.50 ± 0.59 0.42 ± 0.46
Humulene epoxide II 1606 1608 0.04 ± 0.06 0.04 ± 0.09 0.01 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.11 0.03 ± 0.04 0.20 ± 0.21
1,10-di-epi-Cubenol 1609 1618       0.04 ± 0.03
Dillapiole 1623 1620 93.74 ± 0.01 86.11 ± 9.45 83.57 ± 3.39 44.73 ± 1.67 48.66 ± 2.11 39.36 ± 6.58
epi-α-Muurolol 1644 1640    0.02 ± 0.02   0.16 ± 0.11 0.58 ± 0.30
α-Muurolol 1646 1644     0.25 ± 0.35 0.02 ± 0.03 0.07 ± 0.05
α-Cadinol 1654 1652    0.09 ± 0.13   0.36 ± 0.08 0.44 ± 0.52
Apiole 1669 1677 0.42 ± 0.26 0.11 ± 0.06 1.24 ± 0.28 2.01 ± 2.84 2.54 ± 0.92 1.83 ± 1.43
n-Tetradecanol 1676 1671   1.54 ± 3.23 0.02 ± 0.02 0.01 ± 0.13 0.10 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01
Monoterpene hydrocarbons   0.14 ± 0.00   5.93 ± 2.07 10.69 ± 4.39 14.02 ± 1.72
Oxygenated monoterpenes 0.04 ± 0.05 0.54 ± 1.16 0.16 ± 0.23 1.76 ± 1.30 1.44 ± 0.99 2.35 ± 1.57
Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons 3.14 ± 1.71 10.59 ± 4.29 11.34 ± 4.12 32.49 ± 7.20* 27.17 ± 3.88 25.22 ± 6.38
Oxygenated sesquiterpenes 0.11 ± 0.15 0.09 ± 0.19 0.44 ± 0.49 2.29 ± 1.83 1.53 ± 1.08 2.86 ± 2.29
Phenylpropanoids 95.86 ± 0.92 86.83 ± 10.11 87.94 ± 4.85 52.58 ± 5.02* 55.16 ± 4.03 44.26 ± 10.57
Others   1.54 ± 3.23 0.02 ± 0.02 0.01 ± 0.13 0.10 ± 0.01 0.12 ± 0.01
Total 99.15 ± 2.83 99.73 ± 18.98 99.90 ± 9.71 95.06 ± 17.55 96.09 ± 14.38 88.83 ± 22.54
  1. dpi: Days post inoculation; Control: P. aduncum non-inoculated with AMF; AMF: P. aduncum inoculated with AMF; RI cal: Retention index calculated; RI lit: Retention Index of Library
  2. * Statistical difference according to Bonferroni test (p < 0.05)
  3. aMean ± standard deviation (n = 3)