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Table 1 The comparison of body weight, fecal short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and bioamine concentrations in pigs with fermented Mao-tai lees (FML) contents

From: Dietary supplementation with fermented Mao-tai lees beneficially affects gut microbiota structure and function in pigs

Items Control Treat 1 Treat 2 Treat 3
Body weight (kg)
Initial Body weight 46.250 ± 3.080a 38.620 ± 1.990a 42.750 ± 2.620a 41.480 ± 1.310a
Final body weight 111.280 ± 5.660a 108.120 ± 4.330a 112.950 ± 4.100a 106.750 ± 3.980a
Weight gain 65.030 ± 3.450a 69.500 ± 3.360a 70.200 ± 3.240a 65.270 ± 3.620a
SCFAs (mg/g)
Acetate 4.097 ± 0.565ab 4.256 ± 0.271b 5.813 ± 0.071a 6.199 ± 0.871ab
Propionate 2.012 ± 0.289a 2.066 ± 0.260a 2.833 ± 0.107a 2.670 ± 0.319a
Isobutyrate 0.115 ± 0.022a 0.163 ± 0.011a 0.151 ± 0.023a 0.171 ± 0.029a
Butyrate 1.514 ± 0.289a 1.436 ± 0.221a 2.256 ± 0.154a 1.890 ± 0.184a
Isovalerate 0.202 ± 0.038a 0.302 ± 0.023a 0.274 ± 0.041a 0.313 ± 0.052a
Valerate 0.172 ± 0.022a 0.237 ± 0.026ab 0.307 ± 0.018b 0.262 ± 0.021b
Total straight-chain fatty acids 7.622 ± 1.120a 7.758 ± 0.727a 10.903 ± 0.315a 10.760 ± 1.307a
Total BCFA 0.317 ± 0.060a 0.465 ± 0.034a 0.425 ± 0.064a 0.484 ± 0.081a
Total SCFA 7.940 ± 1.176a 8.223 ± 0.709a 11.327 ± 0.366a 11.244 ± 1.340a
Bioamines (μg/g)
Putrescine 5.259 ± 1.065a 4.322 ± 0.499a 4.855 ± 0.470a 3.362 ± 0.691a
Cadaverine 11.140 ± 5.438a 4.188 ± 1.811a 4.079 ± 0.991a 2.667 ± 1.342a
Tyramine 1.013 ± 0.259a 1.400 ± 0.257a 1.294 ± 0.341a 2.082 ± 0.347a
Spermidine 5.584 ± 0.826a 8.746 ± 0.817ab 9.240 ± 0.709b 7.014 ± 1.244ab
Spermine 0.547 ± 0.090a 0.731 ± 0.095a 0.869 ± 0.161a 0.454 ± 0.091a
  1. Data was expressed as mean ± SE obtained from 6 individual pigs each. One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s post hoc test or Mann–Whitney U-tests was used to evaluate the difference of fecal metabolites in different groups. Significant difference is indicated by different letters. The group control, treat 1, treat 2, and treat 3 signify that feed is supplemented with 0, 5%, 10%, or 15% FML, respectively