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Table 2 Combined reactions for each ammonia oxidation pathway showing the number of ATP and NADH produced by the oxidation of one ammonium

From: Genome-scale metabolic model analysis indicates low energy production efficiency in marine ammonia-oxidizing archaea

Pathway Combined reactiona Theoretical yield (mol mol−1)
Pathway 1 NH4+ + 1.5 O2 + 0.5 H +in  + 1.5 ADP + 1.5 Pi → 1.5 ATP + 2.5 H2O + HNO2 1.5 ATP/NH4+
NH4+ + O2 + NAD + 0.5 ADP + 0.5 Pi → 0.5 ATP + 0.5 H2O + HNO2 + 1.5 H +in  + NADH NADH + 0.5 ATP/NH4+
Pathway 2 NH4+ + 1.5 O2 + 0.75 H +in  + 1.75 ADP + 1.75 Pi → 1.75 ATP + 2.75 H2O + HNO2 1.75 ATP/NH4+
NH4+ + O2 + NAD + 0.75 ADP + 0.75 Pi → 0.75ATP + 0.75 H2O + HNO2 + 1.25 H +in  + NADH NADH + 0.75 ATP/NH4+
Pathway 3 NH4+ + 1.5O2 + 0.625 H +in  + 1.625 ADP + 1.625 Pi → 1.625 ATP + 2.625 H2O + HNO2 1.625 ATP/NH4+
NH4+ + O2 + NAD + 0.625 ADP + 0.625 Pi → 0.625 ATP + 0.625 H2O + HNO2 + 1.375 H +in  + NADH NADH + 0.625 ATP/NH4+
  1. aProtons generated by the oxidation of NH4+ can be used to produce ATP and NADH. The two combined reactions represent two situations when ATP or NADH production was maximized, respectively