Skip to main content

Table 1 Changes in free amino acid and ammonia concentrations of the 2 kDa membrane permeates of IYD supernatants

From: Influence of commercial inactivated yeast derivatives on the survival of probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in an acidic environment

  Concentration at 0 h (μg/mL) Concentration after 10 h (μg/mL)
OptiRed® OptiWhite® Noblesse® OptiRed® OptiWhite® Noblesse®
Ammonia 1.99 ± 0.37a 3.48 ± 0.28b 6.89 ± 0.33c 2.32 ± 0.48A 3.61 ± 0.31B 6.09 ± 0.47C
Aspartic acid 17.06 ± 2.33b 4.38 ± 0.59a 5.41 ± 0.63a 16.30 ± 2.12B 4.54 ± 0.57A 4.41 ± 0.38A
Serine 8.43 ± 0.83b 4.68 ± 0.38a 5.98 ± 0.32a 7.74 ± 0.92B 4.75 ± 0.41A 4.71 ± 0.29A*
Glutamic acid 20.91 ± 1.43a 36.69 ± 1.41b 75.64 ± 2.29c 22.07 ± 2.99A 34.01 ± 3.20B 54.41 ± 2.70C*
Glycine 4.59 ± 0.06b 1.94 ± 0.25a 1.77 ± 0.13a 5.14 ± 1.00B 2.58 ± 0.42A 1.96 ± 0.30A
Histidine ND ND ND ND ND ND
Arginine 1.10 ± 0.18a 4.07 ± 0.54b 5.96 ± 0.19c 1.53 ± 0.19A 3.44 ± 1.05B 3.96 ± 0.70B*
Threonine 4.16 ± 0.07c 2.10 ± 0.20b 1.05 ± 0.07a 4.31 ± 0.59C 2.08 ± 0.62B 0.90 ± 0.14A
Alanine 21.37 ± 1.64a 22.32 ± 0.97a 30.83 ± 0.81b 18.85 ± 2.16A 20.70 ± 1.55A 21.97 ± 1.27A*
Proline 4.79 ± 0.26a 15.50 ± 1.87b 18.88 ± 0.53c 4.64 ± 0.77A 13.71 ± 1.22B* 13.70 ± 0.83B*
Cysteine ND 0.94 ± 0.04 ND ND 0.95 ± 0.14 ND
Tyrosine 5.31 ± 0.07c 1.66 ± 0.07b 0.79 ± 0.06a 4.97 ± 0.91C 1.73 ± 0.23B 0.61 ± 0.10A
Valine 10.85 ± 0.31b 5.11 ± 0.22a 4.60 ± 0.09a 10.53 ± 1.65B 5.14 ± 0.52A 3.60 ± 0.28A*
Methionine 2.08 ± 0.08 ND ND 1.94 ± 0.36 ND ND
Lysine 5.83 ± 0.70b 1.38 ± 0.15a 0.40 ± 0.05a 4.98 ± 0.86B 1.03 ± 0.14A ND*
Isoleucine 7.39 ± 0.16b 1.58 ± 0.11a 1.56 ± 0.09a 7.23 ± 1.09B 1.83 ± 0.24A 1.25 ± 0.15A*
Leucine 11.94 ± 0.29c 2.87 ± 0.16b 1.83 ± 0.08a 11.46 ± 1.58B 3.18 ± 0.38A 1.57 ± 0.16A
Phenylalanine 7.49 ± 0.26c 1.65 ± 0.04b 0.80 ± 0.03a 7.25 ± 1.25B 1.93 ± 0.24A 0.76 ± 0.11A
Tryptophan ND ND ND ND ND ND
Total 135.28 ± 7.52b 109.43 ± 5.31a 162.07 ± 4.68c 131.25 ± 16.84B 104.21 ± 10.32A 119.44 ± 7.16AB*
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation of three independent experiments (n = 3). Mean values in the same row with different lower and upper case letters are significantly different (P < 0.05) for 0 h and 10 h, respectively. Mean values denoted with * indicate significant difference (P < 0.05) between concentrations at 0 h and 10 h for each IYD
  2. ND not detected