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Table 1 Different pretreatment methods and their methane yields

From: Pretreatment methods of lignocellulosic biomass for anaerobic digestion

Pretreatment method Pretreatment type Pretreatment conditions Composition changed Gas generating capacity mL/gVS Increased methane yield (%) Observations Reference
Physical methods Mechanical pulverization Pulverization, particle sizes of 33 to 6 mm Cellulose, hemicellulose 11–13 Energy cost is high; particle diameter should be 6 mm for high methane yield (Herrmann et al. 2012)
Physicochemical methods Steam explosion Pretreating silage straw 2.5 MPa, 90 s Hemicellulose, lignin 334.8 56 Gas generating speed increased (Guizhuan et al. 2012)
Microwave radiation Frequency 2.45 GHz, power 680 W, time 24 min Lignin 332.3 Gas generating speed is fast (Weiwei et al. 2012)
Chemical methods H2SO4 2%, pretreated 7 days Cellulose, hemicellulose 175.6 CH4 74.6 Toxic, corrosive and expensive handling (Song et al. 2014)
HCl 2%, pretreated 7 days Cellulose, hemicellulose 163.4 CH4 62.4 Toxic, corrosive and expensive handling (Song et al. 2014)
CH3COOH 4%, pretreated 7 days Cellulose, hemicellulose 145.1 CH4 44.2 Toxic, corrosive and expensive handling (Song et al. 2014)
NaOH 2%, pretreated 3 days Hemicellulose, lignin 220.0 CH4 73.4 Toxic and hard to recycle (Zheng et al. 2009)
KOH 2.5%, pretreated 1 day Hemicellulose, lignin 295.0 CH4 95.6 Effective but expensive (Li et al. 2015b)
Ca(OH)2 2.5%, pretreated 1 day Hemicellulose, lignin 210.71 CH4 39.7 Cheap but hard to dissolve (Li et al. 2015b)
KOH + Ca(OH)2 0.5 and 2%, pretreated 1 day Hemicellulose, lignin 271.38 CH4 79.9 Cheap and effective (Li et al. 2015b)
H2O2 3%, pretreated 7 days Hemicellulose, lignin 216.7 CH4 115.4 Cheap but longer pretreatment time (Song et al. 2014)
Biological methods Mixed microorganism XDC-2, pretreated for 16 days Hemicellulose 294.9 CH4 87. 9 Long pretreatment time and low efficiency (Yuan et al. 2011)
Adding manure Cow dung: corn straw (1:1, w/w) pretreated for 20 days Hemicellulose 450.0 40. 7 Highly dependent on manure type (Zhou et al. 2012)
Microaerobic pretreatment Pretreated up to complete O2 consumption by microbes Hemicellulose, lignin 325.7 CH4 16.24 Efficient pretreatment and cost effective (Fu et al. 2015d)