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Table 2 Spacecraft zone-wise comparison about the different bioburden assays

From: Application of the ATP assay to rapidly assess cleanliness of spacecraft surfaces: a path to set a standard for future missions

Zone Name ATP assay NASA standard spore assay
# of samples tested using swabs Percent clean samples (<2.33 × 10−11 mmol ATP) Percent dirty samples (≥2.33 × 10−11 mmol ATP) # of samples tested using: Percent clean samples (<1 spore) Percent dirty samples (≥1 spore)
Swabs Wipes
Backshell 21 (4)a 81.0 19.0 9 (1) 11 (7) 60.0 40.0
Descent stage 100 (9) 91.0 9.0 109 (1) 32 (4) 96.5 3.5
Heatshield 21 (7) 66.7 33.3 6 (6) 100.0
Rover 107 (15) 86.0 14.0 87 (1) 18 (2) 978.1 2.8
  1. aNumeral in parentheses denotes # of samples exhibiting more than the threshold level of cleanliness