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Table 3 Frequencies of aflatoxin biosynthesis and sugar cluster genes among 35 atoxigenic genotypes from Africa and North America

From: Degeneration of aflatoxin gene clusters in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America

Clustera Geneb Genotype (%)c Synonymous SNPsd Non-synonymous SNPsd Nonsense SNPse
Early genes norB 19 (54) 0–3 (43) 0–2 (49) 0
cypA 19 (54) 0–3 (43) 0–5 (43) 0–1 (49)
aflT 17 (49) 0–3 (43) 0–4 (43) 0
pksA 17 (49) 6–18 (40) 3–16 (40) 0–1 (3)f
nor-1 17 (49) 0–1 (6) 0–1 (3) 0
hexA 17 (49) 5–18 (40) 2–15 (40) 0
hexB 17 (49) 9–20 (49) 7–15 (49) 0
aflR 17 (49) 1–3 (49) 1–3 (49) 0
aflJ 19 (54) 2–9 (51) 0–2 (51) 0–1 (3)
adhA 19 (54) 1–2 (54) 1–4 (49) 0
estA 19 (54) 2–6 (54) 1–3 (54) 0
norA 24 (69) 0–5 (46) 0–3 (46) 0–1 (3)
ver - 1 25 (71) 0–5 (63) 0–2 (57) 0
Late genes verA 25 (71) 0–37 (69) 1–19 (71) 0
avnA 27 (77) 2–5 (77) 2–5 (77) 0
verB 25 (71) 0–5 (69) 1–3 (71) 0
avfA 25 (71) 0–4 (57) 0–4 (63) 0
omtB 26 (74) 0–6 (57) 1–3 (63) 0
omtA 26 (74) 0–7 (66) 0–4 (71) 0–1 (3)
ordA 26 (74) 0–9 (63) 0–6 (57) 0
vbs 26 (74) 1–12 (74) 1–6 (74) 0–1 (3)
cypX 26 (74) 1–11 (74) 1–3 (74) 0
moxY 26 (74) 0–7 (69) 1–8 (74) 0
ordB 26 (74) 0–2 (69) 0–2 (66) 0–1 (14)
hypA 26 (74) 2–5 (74) 1–6 (74) 0–1 (14)
Sugar cluster nada 26 (74) 1–2 (74) 1–6 (74) 0–3 (63)
hxtA 35 (100) 0–5 (89) 1–2 (100) 0
glcA 35 (100) 1–3 (100) 2–3 (100) 0
sugR 35 (100) 1–5 (100) 0–4 (77) 0–1 (14)
orf 35 (100) 0–3 (83) 1–2 (100) 0
  1. aClassification is based on the enzymes encoded by these genes, which are involved in early and late portions of aflatoxin biosynthesis, considering ver-1 (bold italics) as the middle gene
  2. bGenes are listed in the same order as in aflatoxin gene cluster
  3. cPercentages were calculated as (number of genotypes with the gene or SNP/total number of genotypes) × 100. The total number of genotypes was 35
  4. dNumber of synonymous or non-synonymouse SNPs present. Numbers in the parenthesis include percentage of isolates with at least one synonymous or non-synonymous SNP
  5. eNumber of nonsense SNPs and percentage of isolate with at least one nonesense SNP
  6. fStop codon present in A. flavus AF36 as reported in Ehrlich and Cotty (2004)