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Table 6 Microorganisms, culture conditions, and SL production in non-glucose medium reported in previous references

From: Sophorolipids production from rice straw via SO3 micro-thermal explosion by Wickerhamiella domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576

Microorganism Hydrophilic C source (g/L) Hydrophobic C source (g/L) N source (g/L) Culture T (°C)/t (h) Yield (g/L) Country Reference
T. bombicola ATCC 22214 (Now known as C. bombicola ATCC 22214) Fructose (20) YE (10.0) CF 30/72 4.10 Germany Göbbert et al. (1984)
Mannose (20) 4.90
Saccharose (20) 3.20
Maltose (20) 2.00
Raffinose (20) 4.10
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Sucrose (100) Sunflower oil YE (2.5) CF 30/144 33.00 Czechoslovakia Klekner et al. (1991)
YE (5.0) 9.00
YE (10.0) 13.00
YE (20.0) 17.00
T. bombicola ATCC 22214 Lactose (100) Olive oil YE (2.5–3.0) b 30/192 46.46 Canada Zhou and Kosaric (1993)
Galactose (100) Olive oil 24.41
Sucrose (100) Safflower oil 58.32
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Lactose (100) Canola oil YE (4.0) CF 30/192 90–110 Canada Zhou and Kosaric (1995)
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Deproteinized whey concentrate [lactose (100)] Rapeseed oil YE (4.0) F-b 26/168 280.00 Germany Daniel et al. (1998a)
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Deproteinized cheese whey concentrate [lactose (110)] SCO & rapeseed oil F-b 30/410 422.00 Germany Daniel et al. (1998b)
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Soy molasses [333 + 667, total sugar (300)] Oleic acid YE (2.5) F-b 26/168 21.00 USA Solaiman et al. (2004)
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Honey (100) Turkish corn oil YE (10.0) F-b 25/436 >400 Turkey Pekin et al. (2005)
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Biodiesel co-product stream (100 + 100) YE (10.0) b 26/168 60.00 USA Ashby et al. (2005)
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Glycerol (100) Methyl-soyate YE (10.0) F-b 27/168 46.00 USA Ashby et al. (2006)
ethyl-soyate 42.00
propyl-soyate 18.00
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Soy molasses [333 + 667, total sugar (300)] Oleic acid YE (10.0) F-b 26/168 75.00 USA Solaiman et al. (2007)
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Sugarcane molasses (100) Soybean oil b 30/120 23.25 India Daverey and Pakshirajan (2009)
S. bombicola NRRL Y-17069 Deproteinized whey (90) & glu (10) Oleic acid YE (2.0) b 30/192 23.29 India Daverey and Pakshirajan (2010)
CF 25.54
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Sugarcane molasses (50) Synthetic dairy wastewater & soybean oil b 30/192 38.76 India Daverey et al. (2011)
S. bombicola NBRC 10243 Sugarcane molasses [total sugar (150)] F-b 25/120 14.40 Japan Takahashi et al. (2011)
S. bombicola ATCC 22214 Sweetwater [glycerol (150)] Sunflower oil YE (4.0) CF 30/200 6.60 India Wadekar et al. (2012)
W. domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576 Delignined corncob residue hydrolysate [glu (60)] Single cell oil YE (3.0) CF 30/168 42.06 China Ma et al. (2013)
C. bombicola ATCC 22214 Sweet sorghum bagasse hydrolysate [glu (100)] Soybean oil YE (10.0) CF 25/240 84.60 USA Samad et al. (2014)
corn fiber hydrolysate [glu (100)] 15.60
S. bombicola ATCC 22214 Glycerol 150 Castor oil CF 30/200 2.70 India Bhangale et al. (2014)
S. bombicola NBRC 10243 Corncob hydrolysate [glu (45)] Olive oil YE (1.0) CF 25/168 43.80 Japan Konishi et al. (2015)
W. domercqiae var. sophorolipid CGMCC 1576 Rice straw holocellulose hydrolysate [glu (60)] Oleic acid YE (3.0) CF 30/168 53.70 China Present study
  1. T temperature, t time, F-b fed-batch, b batch, CF continuous fermentor, YE yeast extract, glu glucose