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Table 4 Concentration of volatile compounds assayed in distillates obtained from fermented musts of aerated (at 0.02 vvm) and non-aerated S. cerevisiae continuous cultures fed with sterilized (SM) and non-sterilized (NSM) agave juice supplemented with yeast extract

From: Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration

Compound Dilution and aeration rates  
(mg per 100 mL of 0.10 h−1 and 0 vvm 0.12 h−1 and 0.02 vvm NOMa
alcohol) SM NSM SM NSM  
Acetaldehyde 17.42 ± 0.96 12.82 ± 0.98 11.13 ± 0.91 25.57 ± 1.35 0–40
Methanol 180.15 ± 11.33 227.43 ± 19.81 252.67 ± 23.84 200.32 ± 11.94 30–300
Fusel alcohols 280.58 ± 16.69 258.08 ± 20.67 269.91 ± 24.16 349.49 ± 19.58 20–500
2-butanol 137.68 ± 8.09 125.69 ± 10.22 151.11 ± 13.32 173.92 ± 9.68  
1-propanol nd nd nd nd
Isobutanol 34.43 ± 1.50 27.26 ± 1.46 23.89 ± 1.38 40.45 ± 1.48
1-butanol 1.87 ± 0.52 nd 2.06 ± 0.86 2.54 ± 0.67
Isoamyl and amyl alcohols 106.61 ± 6.58 105.13 ± 8.99 92.86 ± 8.60 132.58 ± 7.75
Esters 8.66 ± 0.25 11.35 ± 0.64 5.45 ± 0.23 9.71 ± 0.55 2–200
Ethyl lactate nd nd 2.14 ± 0.15 1.23 ± 0.09
Ethyl acetate 8.66 ± 0.25 11.35 ± 0.63 3.31 ± 0.09 8.48 ± 0.46
Furfurals 2.98 ± 0.21 nd nd nd 0–4
  1. nd Compound not detected under the analysis conditions
  2. Values are the means ± standard deviations (n = 3)
  3. aNOM: official mexican norm of alcoholic beverages-tequila specifications (NOM-006-SCFI-2012 2012). Ranges of minimum and maximum allowed concentrations in tequila