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Table 4 Contact angles and surface free energy parameters of polystyrene with and without a biosurfactant adsorbed layer

From: Diverse effects of a biosurfactant from Rhodococcus ruber IEGM 231 on the adhesion of resting and growing bacteria to polystyrene

Polystyrene surface Contact angles (degree) Parameters (mJ m−2)
Water Glycerol Hexadecane Dimethyl-sulfoxide γ γLW γAB γ γ+
Uncovered 88 ± 2 79 ± 1 10 ± 2 51 ± 1 29.1 27.1 2.0 4.0 0.25
Covered with biosurfactant 86 ± 2 75 ± 2 41 ± 2 51 ± 1 27.2 21.2 5.0 4.3 1.45