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Table 5 Shoot dry weight (SDW), root dry weight (RDW), N content (NC), total N accumulated in the shoots (TNS), chlorophyll content (CC), root volume (RV), number of tillers (NT), and MPN (most probable number) of diazotrophic bacteria on leaves, roots and rhizosphere soil in a greenhouse experiment with wheat cultivar the BRS Gaivota in response to different doses of inoculant, levels of N fertilization, and methods of inoculation

From: Accessing inoculation methods of maize and wheat with Azospirillum brasilense

Treatment SDW (g pl−1) RDW (g pl−1) NC (mg g−1) TNS (mg pl−1) CC (µg cm−2) Biometric measurements Microbiological parameters
RV (mL pl−1) NT (n° pl−1) Leaf (n° cells g−1) Root (n° cells g−1) Rhizosphere soil (n° cells g−1)
T1: C + 75 %Na 1.64ns 1.71 bc 22.40 d 36.72 b 17.90 b 9.0ns 4.60 c 1.26 × 105 cd 2.64 × 108 abcd 3.30 × 106 bcd
T2: C + 100 %N 1.76 1.66 bc 27.42 abc 48.16 ab 17.89 b 9.1 4.90 bc 4.07 × 104 d 7.92 × 108 abcd 5.33 × 106 d
T3: SI + 1 doseb + 75 %N 1.78 1.98 abc 26.79 abcd 47.98 ab 19.08 ab 8.1 5.00 bc 8.94 × 105 cd 5.28 × 108 abcd 2.24 × 106 bcd
T4: SI +1 dose +100 %N 1.80 2.23 abc 24.41 abcd 46.42 ab 19.67 ab 11.1 6.20 ab 6.95 × 105 bcd 9.00 × 107 bcd 2.19 × 106 cd
T5: SI + 2.5 doses + 75 %N 1.62 1.96 abc 27.25 abc 44.06 ab 19.34 ab 7.4 5.00 bc 3.98 × 105 cd 4.97 × 108 abcd 1.00 × 107 abcd
T6: SI + 2.5 doses + 100 %N 1.83 2.35 ab 25.65 abcd 47.07 ab 19.15 ab 9.6 5.50 abc 3.69 × 106 abc 6.26 × 107 cd 4.14 × 106 abcd
T7: IPF + 1 dose + 75 %N 1.79 2.22 abc 24.54 abcd 44.06 ab 21.34 a 9.2 6.20 ab 5.04 × 106 abc* 5.42 × 108 abcd 1.38 × 107 abcd
T8: IPF + 1 dose + 100 %N 1.68 1.98 abc 24.91 abcd 41.90 ab 21.07 ab 9.3 5.20 abc 1.07 × 106 abcd 1.60 × 108 d 4.46 × 106 abcd
T9: IPF + 2.5 doses + 75 %N 1.56 1.81 bc 25.70 abcd 40.15 ab 19.58 ab 7.8 4.40 c 2.09 × 106 abcd 1.03 × 109 ab 3.32 × 107 abc
T10: IPF + 2.5 doses + 100 %N 1.64 1.93 abc 27.05 abc 44.42 ab 22.36 a* 9.2 5.00 bc 1.14 × 106 abcd 4.84 × 108 abcd 3.29 × 107 a*
T11: ILS + 1 dose + 75 %N 1.65 2.33 ab 23.60 bcd 38.60 b 19.63 ab 9.8 5.90 abc 2.40 × 107 a* 4.17 × 108 abcd 1.12 × 108 ab
T12: ILS + 1 dose + 100 %N 1.66 2.61 a* 24.42 abcd 40.38 ab 20. 49 ab 12.1 6.60 a 2.74 × 106 abc 8.94 × 107 bcd 2.98 × 106 cd
T13: ILS + 2.5 doses + 75 %N 1.50 1.57 c 26.23 abcd 38.46 b 21.99 a* 9.6 4.60 c 7.06 × 105 abcd 5.17 × 108 abcd 3.95 × 106 bcd
T14: ILS + 2.5 doses + 100 %N 1.84 2.15 abc 28.48 a 51.64 a 20.35 ab 8.0 5.70 abc 3.82 × 107 a* 6.82 × 107 bcd 6.20 × 106 abcd
T15: ISS + 1 dose + 75 %N 1.62 1.76 bc 23.17 cd 37.29 b 21.26 a 8.4 5.00 bc 9.72 × 106 ab* 9.92 × 108 abc 5.36 × 106 bcd
T16: ISS + 1 dose + 100 %N 1.72 1.55 c 27.87 ab 47.11 ab 16.65 ab 6.4 5.90 abc 1.04 × 106 abc 2.40 × 109 a* 2.42 × 106 cd
T17: ISS + 2.5 doses + 75 % N 1.54 1.94 abc 27.25 abc 41.46 ab 19.56 ab 8.4 5.00 bc 1.45 × 106 abc 8.23 × 108 abcd 2.13 × 106 cd
T18: ISS + 2.5 doses + 100 % N 1.75 2.09 abc 28.88 a 43.82 ab 20.01 ab 10.3 6.30 ab 1.90 × 106 abc 1.21 × 109 abcd 1.77 × 106 d
p value 0.5401 0.0497 0.0217 0.0043 0.0015 0.2877 0.0125 <0.0001 0.0002 0.0134
CV (%) 21.31 24.74 11.44 21.06 13.04 30.25 18.74 14.32 7.5 8.09
  1. Parameters determined at 54 days after seedling emergence
  2. Means (five replicates) followed by the same letter on the same column are not significantly different from one another according to Duncan’s test (p ≤ 0.05), whereas means followed by * are significantly different from treatment 2 (T2) according to Dunnet’s test (p ≤ 0.05). ns not significant
  3. C non-inoculated control, SI standard seed inoculation, IPF inoculation at planting in the furrow, ILS inoculation by leaf spray at the tiller stage 3, ISS inoculation by soil spray at the at the tiller stage 3
  4. aN: 75 % (60 kg ha−1) and 100 % (80 kg ha−1), split in equal amounts every 8 days
  5. bInoculant dose:1× (1.74 × 104 cells seed−1 or 1.74 × 104 cells plant−1)