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Table 1 Technological properties and oxidation biomarkers of ADY from Saccharomyces wine strains under molasses supplementation with different antioxidants

From: Food-grade argan oil supplementation in molasses enhances fermentative performance and antioxidant defenses of active dry wine yeast

Parameter Control 5 µM Caffeic acid 6 mg/mL Oleic acid 5 µM Ascorbic acid
T73
 Biomass (OD600) 18.42 (±0.2) 28.43 (±1.1) 33.36 (±2.1) 27.03 (±0.7)
 FC (mL CO2/107cells) 10.52 (±0.3) 9.1 (±0.7) 9.03 (±1.7) 22.21 (±2.4)
 LP (pmol MDA/mg protein) 26.85 (±1.0) 21.32 (±1.6) 29.02 (±0.8) 23.50 (±1.0)
 GSH (nmol/mg cell) 1.67 (±0.01) 1.97 (±0.12) 2.45 (±0.02) 2.23 (±0.01)
 Trehalose (µg/mg cells) 100.1 (±9.7) 547.2 (±2.9) 649.7 (±3.8) 940.6 (±3.1)
 Δ GR (U/mg prot) −0.52 (±0.3) 0.88 (±0.15) 1.08 (±0.41) 0.35 (±0.11)
 Δ Catalase (U/mg prot) 18.96 (±0.1) 9.86 (±2.1) 15.42 (±1.4) 5.49 (±0.7)
D18
 Biomass (OD600) 16.64 (±0.1) 37.41 (±0.1) 26.58 (±0.7) 28.81(±1.1)
 FC (mL CO2/107cells) 8.39 (±0.9) 9.55 (±0.9) 9.78 (±0.8) 6.75 (±0.6)
 LP (pmol MDA/mg protein) 24.11 (±2.3) 9.40 (±1.8) 19.87 (±0.9) 17.09 (±1.3)
 GSH (nmol/mg cell) 0.91 (±0.02) 1.27 (±0.01) 2.65 (±0.03) 1.50 (±0.02)
 Trehalose (µg/mg cells) 193.5 (±10) 765.2 (±3.9) 287.5 (±9.4) 853.6 (±3.3)
 Δ GR (U/mg prot) −0.17 (±0.1) 1.07 (±0.18) 1.34 (±0.32) 0.25 (±0.16)
 Δ Catalase (U/mg prot) 31.26 (±0.7) 9.77 (±2.2) 4.87 (±0.9) 11.22 (±1.9)
D170
 Biomass (OD600) 17.61 (±0.2) 28.26 (±0.1) 26.40 (±1.1) 21.95 (±0.6)
 FC (mL CO2/107cells) 17.18 (±0.1) 18.31 (±1.5) 19.86 (±0.7) 8.52 (±0.4)
 LP (pmol MDA/mg protein) 23.34 (±0.9) 7.69 (±1.2) 21.15 (±0.5) 46.58 (±0.9)
 GSH (nmol/mg cell) 1.24 (±0.03) 1.22 (±0.07) 1.23 (±0.10) 1.19 (±0.08)
 Trehalose (µg/mg cells) 155.5 (±2.8) 204.6 (±5.9) 376.7 (±4.9) 442.6 (±1.0)
 Δ GR (U/mg prot) 2.57 (±0.7) 3.96 (±0.59) 4.90 (±0.02) 2.33 (±0.21)
 Δ Catalase (U/mg prot) 0.28 (±1.7) 11.25 (±3.8) 8.89 (±0.04) 7.26 (±2.4)
D301
 Biomass (OD600) 17.66 (±0.4) 22.68 (±0.1) 27.53 (±1.1) 22.05 (±0.1)
 FC (mL CO2/107cells) 3.58 (±0.1) 1.3 (±0.1) 7.83 (±0.5) 8.26 (±1.1)
 LP (pmol MDA/mg protein) 20.08 (±1.7) 19.79 (±0.9) 20.08 (±0.2) 19.48 (±0.8)
 GSH (nmol/mg cell) 1.20 (±0.05) 1.14 (±0.06) 1.10 (±0.12) 1.19 (±0.06)
 Trehalose (µg/mg cells) 141.1 (±22) 14.5 (±21) 38.5 (±3.5) 37.9 (±1.4)
 Δ GR (U/mg prot) 0.89 (±0.23) 1.51 (±0.23) 1.28 (±0.23) 0.88 (±0.01)
 Δ Catalase (U/mg prot) 67.76 (±0.4) 6.00 (±0.4) 5.57 (±0.4) 7.26 (±0.4)
D128
 Biomass (OD600) 14.11 (±0.1) 29.48 (±0.1) 26.95 (±2.1) 16.74 (±0.2)
 FC (mL CO2/107cells) 2.33 (±0.6) 1.75 (±0.1) 1.68 (±0.1) 1.88 (±0.2)
 LP (pmol MDA/mg protein) 22.00 (±1.8) 10.04 (±1.4) 19.02 (±0.5) 22.22 (±0.8)
 GSH (nmol/mg cell) 0.43 (±0.05) 1.26 (±0.13) 1.27 (±0.08) 1.35 (±0.07)
 Trehalose (µg/mg cells) 153.8 (±11) 144.9 (±7.6) 202.4 (±22) 309.4 (±3.8)
 Δ GR (U/mg prot) 1.70 (±0.28) 2.30 (±0.09) 4.60 (±0.29) 3.10 (±0.01)
 Δ Catalase (U/mg prot) 0.39 (±1.1) 6.71 (±1.13) 4.91 (±1.0) 7.56 (±0.13)
D272
 Biomass (OD600) 11.26 (±0.2) 21.02 (±0.2) 27.81 (±1.9) 8.59 (±1.2)
 FC (mL CO2/107cells) 10.42 (±0.4) 23.51 (±1.4) 13.15 (±0.6) 20.29 (±2.2)
 LP (pmol MDA/mg protein) 20.83 (±1.4) 10.04 (±1.0) 6.41 (±0.1) 14.96 (±0.4)
 GSH (nmol/mg cell) 2.42 (±0.22) 1.38 (±0.15) 1.26 (±0.08) 1.30 (±0.06)
 Trehalose (µg/mg cells) 190.9 (±2.5) 361.4 (±10) 394.4 (±17) 724.8 (±10)
 Δ GR (U/mg prot) 1.10 (±0.20) 4.70 (±0.31) 1.80 (±0.39) 2.80 (±0.02)
 Δ Catalase (U/mg prot) −2.24 (±0.3) 1.70 (±1.26) 1.59 (±0.24) 1.52 (±0.30)
P6
 Biomass (OD600) 13.72 (±1.1) 30.94 (±0.1) 48.62 (±0.1) 23.81 (±0.2)
 FC (mL CO2/107cells) 12.53 (±0.6) 14.52 (±0.8) 17.65 (±0.1) 16.37 (±0.7)
 LP (pmol MDA/mg protein) 22.50 (±0.9) 13.46 (±1.5) 15.38 (±1.6) 15.38 (±1.9)
 GSH (nmol/mg cell) 3.65 (±0.38) 1.43 (±0.02) 2.14 (±0.13) 1.74 (±0.28)
 Trehalose (µg/mg cells) 252.6 (±24) 235.7 (±1.4) 691.3 (±40) 828.8 (±4.3)
 Δ GR (U/mg prot) 1.20 (±0.01) 2.40 (±0.39) 3.7 (±0.76) 3.10 (±0.27)
 Δ Catalase (U/mg prot) 0.064 (±0.1) 0.80 (±0.10) 0.14 (±0.20) 0.40 (±0.10)
  1. Italics indicates significant difference respect to the control from non-supplemented molasses with p < 0.05. In brackets SD value from three independent experiments
  2. FC fermentative capacity, LP lipid peroxidation, GSH reduced glutathione, GR glutathione reductase activity