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Table 4 Reduction potentials of redox mediators

From: Redox mediators modify end product distribution in biomass fermentations by mixed ruminal microbes in vitro

Redox mediator

E° (V)


Methyl viologen


Michaelis and Hill (1933)

Neutral red


Park et al. (1999)

Safranin O


Stieliler et al. (1933)



Hungate (1969)


+0.571 to +0.996a

Hagerman et al. (1998)

  1. aVaries with specific compound; range is at experimental pH of 6.24, similar to pH values of fermentation experiments reported here.