Summary of the physiological state of the average population. The specific glucose uptake rate (qs, gGLCgCDWh−1, black bars), the adenylate energy charge (AEC, dark grey bars) and the biomass yield (Yx/s, gCDWgGLC−1, light grey bars) were measured at steady state conditions for different growth rates μ (h−1). The growth rate was stepwise increased until a wash-out of the cells was monitored. Concentrations of cell dry weight (CDW), glucose (GLC) and the AEC were measured offline, sampling after 5 residence times of one specific growth rate (0.1 ≤ μ (h−1) ≤ 0.7). Error bars show the standard deviation between three biological replicate cultivations.