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Table 3 C. butyricum growth parameters, with aqueous and gaseous end-product concentrations for low (170 mM) vs high (620 mM) initial glycerol concentrations after 20 hours of fermentation

From: Reduced catabolic protein expression in Clostridium butyricum DSM 10702 correlate with reduced 1,3-propanediol synthesis at high glycerol loading

Parameter/Glycerol Concentration 170 mM 620 mM
C Balance 1.05 1.08
Specific Growth Rate (h−1) a 0.175 0.113
Substrate utilization (%) 92.1 28.3
Y PDO/s (mol /mol) 0.51 ± 0.01 0.55 ± 0
PDO (g/L h) 0.31 ± 0.01 0.16 ± 0.01
PDO (g/L) 6.15 ± 0.13 3.13 ± 0.11
Y Buty/s (mol /mol) 0.18 ± 0 0.22 ± 0.01
Buty (g/L) 2.46 ± 0.05 1.28 ± 0.37
Y Acet/s (mol /mol) 0.02 ± 0 0
Acet (g/L) 0.23 ± 0.02 0.04 ± 0
Y H2/s (mol /mol) 0.13 ± 0.02 0.19 ± 0.01
H2 (mmol/L) 20.84 ± 3.29 32.47 ± 4.76
Y CO2/s (mol /mol) 0.47 ± 0.08 0.60 ± 0.01
CO2 (mmol/L) 74.76 ± 12.84 100.58 ± 3.42
  1. aGrowth rate was calculated from the increase in number of cells with time during the exponential phase. Carbon recovery was calculated from the ratio of (carbon out)/(carbon in) where the formula C4H7O2N (Zeng et al., [1993]) was used for C. butyricum biomass; Y, Yield; PDO, 1,3-PDO; Buty, butyrate; Acet, acetate. Three independent biological replicates were used for each experiment.