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Table 2 Pathogen contamination in freshwater environment (ground water, rivers and lakes and reservoirs)

From: Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

Author(s) year Organisms Results Study remarks
Groundwater    
Bitton et al. ([1983]) Salmonella, E. coli, S. faecalis, enteroviruses S. faecalis decay rate was similar to viruses Survival of pathogens in groundwater
Schijven and Hassanizadeh ([2000]) Viruses Viruses attachment with soil was influenced by pH, and favorable sites Soil passage impacts on virus removal at field-scale
Pang et al. ([2004]) E. coli and F-RNA phages Pathogens were sorbed in aquifer material Transport of E. coli and F-RNA phages
Nevecherya et al. ([2005]) Salmonella, viruses, E. coli, shigellos Mathematical model was derived for temperature depends inactivation rate Pathogenic bacteria and viruses survival in groundwater
Filip and Demnerova ([2009]) Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus Pathogens survived 10 to 100 days Pathogens survival in groundwater; FT-IR characterization
Grisey et al. ([2010]) Total coliforms, E. coli, Enterococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus Bacterial density monitoring coupled with artificial trace experiments proved useful in locating pathogens sources Pathogens survival in groundwater and landfill leachate
Rivers    
Chin ([2010]) Fecal coliform Summer and rainfall raises pathogens Urban areas impacts on stream pathogens
Smith et al. ([1973]) Salmonella, fecal coliforms, streptococci Salmonella decline was close to fecal coliform Usefulness of indicators organisms
Burton et al. ([1987]) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella newport, E. coli Clay in sediments improves E. coli survival Survival of pathogens in fresh water sediments
Smith et al. ([1987]) E. coli, Fecal bacteria U.S. rivers shows decline in fecal indicator Water quality assessment from 1974 to 1981
Terzieva and McFeters ([1991]) E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Yersinia enterocolitica Temperate zone surface water serve as a rersisitent verhicle in transimsision of bacteria between animals and humans Survival and injury study of bacteria in agricultural surface water
Terzieva and McFeters ([1991]) Yersinia enterocolitica and E. coli Experimental design and environmental play major role in pathogens survival Survival in stream water, comparison between field and lab studies
Fraser et al. ([1998]) Fecal coliform Model predicted pathogens Modelling non-point source pollution
Lakes and reservoirs    
Beaver and Crisman ([1989]) Ciliates Grazing habits of ciliates are discussed Predators roles in fresh water
Rubentschik et al. ([1936]) Serratia marcescens Adsorption of bacteria could be questionable Adsorption of bacteria in salt lakes
Mac Kenzie et al. ([1994]) Cryptosporidium C. oocysts study passes through the filtration system of water supply Contaminated water from Milwaukee lake caused outbreak
Wcislo and Chrost ([2000]) E. coli Predators controlled pathogen levels Survival of pathogens in man-made reservoir
Kistemann et al. ([2002]) E. coli, coliform, fecal streptococcal, and Clostridium perfringens Most of the pathogens increases during extreme runoff events Microbial load in drinking water reservoir during rainfall events
Howe et al. ([2002]) Cryptosporidium oocysts Animal feces was a major source of pathogens Water supply’s oocysts caused outbreak in northern England
Ishii et al. ([2006]) E. coli E. coli survived longer in soil Presence and growth of E. coli in Lake superior watershed