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Table 1 Studies describing pathogen contamination in saline water (coastal and estuary environments)

From: Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria

Author(s) year Organisms Results Study remarks
Coastal water    
Gerba and McLeod ([1976]) E. coli, fecal coliform Longer survival in the sediment presence in seawater Sediment influence on pathogen survival
Goyal et al. ([1977]) Total coliform, fecal coliform Sediments of shallow canal can act as a reservoir Pathogens distribution in water and sediment
Kapuscinski and Mitchell ([1983]) E. coli, bacteriophages E. coli survives longer than bacteriophages Survival of pathogens in sunlight
Rao et al. ([1984]) Enteroviruses (Polio and Rota) Abundance viruses were attached with sediment Viruses distribution in water and sediment
Weiskel et al. ([1996]) Fecal coliform Waterfowl major source of fecal coliform inputs Pathogen source and transport pathways
Sinton et al. ([1999]) Bacteria and Fecal bacteriophages Somatic coliphages shown prolonged survival Sunlight influence on sewage-polluted seawater
Solo-Gabriele et al. ([2000]) E. coli Riverbanks as the primary pathogen source Sources of pathogens on subtropical environment
Nasser et al. ([2003]) Cryptosporidium, viruses, E. coli E. coli die-off was faster than other pathogens Comparative survival of various pathogens
Schriewer et al. ([2010]) Bacteroidales, fecal indicator, protozoa, bacteria Bacteroidales have shown higher predictive skill than fecal indicators Bacteroidales as a predictor of pathogens in coastal water
Estuaries    
Ketchum et al. ([1952]) Coliform, zooplankton Sactericidal and predation caused coliform die-off Processes responsible for pathogens decrease
Smith et al. ([1978]) Echovirus 1, coxsackieviruses Sediment prolonged viruses survival Persistence of pathogen viruses
Rhodes and Kator ([1990]) E. coli Mortality rises in sunlight Indigenous microbiota and sunlight influence
White et al. ([1998]) Perkinsus marinus Use of Kriging analysis for disease prevalence Use of GIS in pathogen distribution analysis
Lipp et al. ([2001]) Vibrio vulnificus Salinity controls the distribution of pathogens Distribution of human pathogens
Desmarais et al. ([2002]) E. coli, C. perfringens Pathogens re-grown with tides and sterile sediment Influence of soil on fecal indicator in tidally influenced environment
Frias-Lopez et al. ([2002]) Clostridium, Campylobacter, Arobacter Pathogen partitioning was found in surface and overlying water Bacterial communities partitioning between sea water, dead coral surface
Chandran and Hatha ([2005]) E. coli, Salmonella E. coli shows better survival capacity than Salmonella Relative survival in microcosm studies
Baker-Austin et al. ([2009]) Vibrio vulnificus Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in a human pathogen Multi-site analysis shows widespread antibiotic resistance in pathogens