Ethanol production, glucose consumption and acetate concentration of S. cerevisiae ER and ER HAA1-OP in YPD medium (a, b and c), and YPD medium containing 0.5% acetate (d, e and f). Strains ER and ER HAA1-OP were inoculated in YPD medium (100 ml in a 300-ml Erlenmeyer flask) containing 0% or 0.5% acetate (pH 4.5). The initial densities of the yeast cells were 4.8 × 107 (equivalent to OD600 = 1). The cultures were incubated at 30°C for 18 h with shaking at 80 rpm. The data presented in this figure are averages from three independent experiments. Error bars represent standard deviations.