Alliinase from Ensifer adhaerens and Its Use for Generation of Fungicidal Activity
© Yutani et al; licensee Springer. 2011
Received: 12 January 2011
Accepted: 28 March 2011
Published: 28 March 2011
A bacterium Ensifer adhaerens FERM P-19486 with the ability of alliinase production was isolated from a soil sample. The enzyme was purified for characterization of its general properties and evaluation of its application in on-site production of allicin-dependent fungicidal activity. The bacterial alliinase was purified 300-fold from a cell-free extract, giving rise to a homogenous protein band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The bacterial alliinase (96 kDa) consisted of two identical subunits (48 kDa), and was most active at 60°C and at pH 8.0. The enzyme stoichiometrically converted (-)-alliin ((-)-S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) to form allicin, pyruvic acid, and ammonia more selectively than (+)-alliin, a naturally occurring substrate for plant alliinase ever known. The C-S lyase activity was also detected with this bacterial enzyme when S-alkyl-L-cysteine was used as a substrate, though such a lyase activity is absolutely absent in alliinase of plant origin. The enzyme generated a fungicidal activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a time- and a dose-dependent fashion using alliin as a stable precursor. Alliinase of Ensifer adhaerens FERM P-19486 is the enzyme with a novel type of substrate specificity, and thus considered to be beneficial when used in combination with garlic enzyme with respect to absolute conversion of (±)-alliin to allicin.
On-site production of allicin from a stable precursor alliin is attractive if this can be applied for various clinical purposes. In fact, with increasing interest in the efficacy of allicin in the purposes, its production has been devised both in vitro and in vivo with the aid of garlic alliinase (Miron et al. 2003; Shadkchan et al. 2004; Fry et al. 2005). Alliinase from microbial origin is another choice for this purpose. (Murakami (1960)) first reported the occurrence of alliinase in microbial world based on the detection of the corresponding enzyme activity in acetone-powdered cell-free extract from Bacillus subtilis. (Durbin and Uchytil (1971)) then reported the production of the enzyme by Penicillium corymbiferum. The partially purified enzyme stoichiometrically converted alliin to pyruvic acid, ammonia, and allicin, showing none of lyase activity on S-alkyl-L-cysteine. In the present study, we isolated a microorganism, which generates allicin-like odor during the growth in medium containing (±)-alliin, and purified the enzyme involved in the metabolic conversion of this amino acid derivative into an odorous compound. We hereby report isolation of an alliinase-producing bacterium, purification of the bacterial enzyme, and its substrate specificity characterized by the selectivity toward (-)-alliin. We also evaluate a combination of the enzyme and alliin with respect to on-site generation of allicin-dependent fungicidal activity using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model of fungal cells.
Materials and methods
Isolation of alliinase-producing microorganism
Appropriately diluted suspension of each soil sample was plated onto a synthetic medium (12% (w/v) Na2HPO4, 0.3% KH2PO4, 0.1% D-glucose, 0.05% NaCl, 0.002% CaCl2, 0.0003% MgSO4·7H2O, and 2% (w/v) agar, pH 6.2), in which (±)-alliin was added at the concentration of 0.1% as a sole nitrogen source. After 7-days incubation at 25°C, colonies formed were isolated as alliin-utilizing strains, and were independently inoculated onto the agar plates for evaluation of odorous compound production. Six strains were chosen, but cells of these strains were poorly grown in the liquid synthetic medium with the above composition. Therefore, alliinase activity was assayed with cells cultivated in the nutrient medium as described in the following section. A strain with the highest activity was chosen and designated strain FERM P-19486, which has been deposited in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Tsukuba, Japan).
Identification of isolated strain FERM P-19486
Strain FERM P-19486 was identified on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence in addition to the morphological and physiological properties examined according to the guideline of (Casida (1982)). The genomic DNA was extracted with the DNeasy Tissue Kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA). PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA and its sequence analysis were performed with the MicroSeq Full Gene 16S rDNA kit (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA).
The standard alliinase assay mixture contained 40 mM (±)-alliin, 20 μM pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0), and enzyme in a total volume of 1.0 ml. Alliinase activity was determined by colorimetrically measuring pyruvic acid produced in the reaction as described by (Durbin and Uchytil (1971)). One unit of the enzyme activity was defined as the enzyme amount that catalyzed the formation of 1 μmole of pyruvic acid per min at 30°C. Protein concentration was measured according to the method of Bradford using bovine serum albumin as a standard (Bradford, 1976).
Measurement of alliin, allicin, and ammonia
In the reaction with (±)-alliin, the remaining concentrations of (+)-alliin and (-)-alliin were measured by HPLC using a reverse-phase C18 column (YMC-Pack ODS-AM, YMC Co., Kyoto, Japan) at 220 nm. In this HPLC analysis, (+)-alliin and (-)-alliin could be separated by isocratic elution, which was done with 10 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.5) containing 5 mM tetra n-butylammonium dihydrogenphosphate at a flow rate of 1.0 ml per min. Allicin was also measured by HPLC using the same column except that it was isocratically eluted with a mixture of acetonitrile, H2O, and tetrahydrofuran at a ratio of 30: 67: 3 (v/v) and detected at 240 nm. Ammonia were colorimetrically measured as described by (Mazelis and Creveling (1975)).
(i) Preparation of cell free extract
Strain FERM P-19486 was routinely grown in the nutrient medium, which consisted of 3% (w/v) bouillon (Nissui Co., Tokyo, Japan), at 30°C for 3 d with vigorous shaking. Cells from 1,000 ml culture were collected by centrifugation at 7,000 × g for 10 min, washed, and suspended with 0.02 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0 (buffer A). Cells were then disrupted by ultrasonic treatment at 0°C using a Branson Sonifier 250, and the supernatant obtained after removing cell debris was used as a crude enzyme.
(ii) DEAE-cellulose column chromatography
The supernatant was put on a DEAE-cellulose column (3.0 × 14.0 cm) equilibrated with buffer A. After washing the column with the same buffer, the enzyme was eluted with buffer A containing 0.05 M NaCl.
(iii) Phenyl-sepharose column chromatography
After addition of NaCl to the active fraction at 1.5 M, it was then put on a phenyl-sepharose (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Uppsala, Sweden) column (1.5 × 3.0 cm) equilibrated with buffer A containing 1.5 M NaCl. After washing the column with the same buffer, the enzyme was eluted with buffer A. The active fractions were combined and dialyzed against buffer A.
(iv) Aminohexyl-sepharose column chromatography
The enzyme was put on an aminohexyl-sepharose (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) column (1.5 × 6.0 cm) equilibrated with buffer A. After the column was washed with the same buffer, the enzyme was eluted with a linear gradient of buffer A to buffer A containing 0.3 M NaCl. The volume of each fraction was 5 ml. The active fractions were combined and concentrated to about 500 μl with an Ultrafree-MC (30,000 NMWL, Millipore, Bedford, MA).
(v) Mono Q column chromatography
The enzyme solution was then applied to a Mono Q (Pharmacia, Uppsala, Sweden) column (5.0 × 50 mm) equilibrated with buffer A. After the column was washed with the same buffer, the enzyme was eluted with a linear gradient of buffer A to buffer A containing 0.2 M NaCl. The flow rate was 1 ml/min. The active fractions were combined and concentrated to about 50 μl with an Ultrafree-MC (30,000 NMWL).
(vi) Gel filtration
The enzyme was then applied to a TSK-GEL (TOSOH, Tokyo, Japan) column (7.8 × 300 mm) equilibrated with buffer A. The flow rate was 1 ml/min. The active fractions were combined and used as the purified enzyme.
The purity of the enzyme was examined by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) using 8% polyacrylamide gel at a constant current of 20 mA per gel at 4°C. For detection of alliinase activity, gel slices were cut from another lane with the same sample, and each gel slice was directly incubated in 100 μl of the standard alliinae assay mixture at 30°C for 30 min. Allicin produced in the mixture was measured by HPLC. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-PAGE was carried out using 10% (w/v) polyacrylamide gel at a constant current of 20 mA per gel, in which broad-range molecular mass standards (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Tokyo, Japan) were simultaneously run. Proteins were detected by silver staining.
Molecular mass determination
The molecular mass of the native enzyme was estimated by gel filtration using a TSK-GEL column. The operating condition was already described above. The column was calibrated by using the standard proteins: thyroglobulin (669 kDa), ferritin (440 kDa), catalase (232 kDa), lactate dehydrogenase (140 kDa), and bovine serum albumin (66 kDa). The molecular mass of the enzyme under denaturing conditions was determined by SDS-PAGE.
Measurement of cell viability in medium containing (±)-alliin and P-19486 alliinase
S. cerevisiae W303-1A cells were grown at 30°C for 16 h with vigorous shaking in YPD medium containing 1% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) peptone, and 2% (w/v) D-glucose. An overnight-grown culture was diluted with freshly prepared YPD medium to obtain an initial cell density of 107 cells/ml, in which PLP was supplemented at 20 μM. Incubation was then started at 30°C with the addition of various concentrations of (±)-alliin and FERM P-19486 alliinase. Aliquots of the cell suspension were withdrawn, diluted, and spread onto YPD-agar plates to measure the viable cell number as colony-forming units after a 24-h incubation at 30°C.
(±)-Alliin, (+)-alliin, and allicin were products of LKT Laboratories, Inc (St. Paul, MN). S-Methyl-L-cysteine and S-ethyl-L-cysteine were obtained from ICN Pharmaceuticals, Inc (Costa Mesa, CA). S-Methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide was from Research Organics, Inc (Cleveland, OH).
Identification of strain FERM P-19486
Tanxonomical features of strain FERM P-19486
(0.6 - 0.7 × 1.2 - 2.0 μm)
Purification of P-19486 alliinase
Purification of alliinase from E. adhaerens FERM P-19486
Selectivity toward diastereomer of alliin
Substrate specificity of alliinase from E. adhaerens FERM P-19486
V max a
V max /K m
Generation of a fungicidal activity in medium containing (±)-alliin and P-19486 alliinase
The alliinase-producing bacterium FERM P-19486 was identified as E. adhaerens. E. adhaerens constitutes a group of non-nodulating bacteria that do not harbor nifH gene, but the genus Ensifer, comprising the former Sinorhizobium species and Ensifer adhaerens, contain bacteria capable of nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with leguminous plants (Martens et al. 2008).
Plant alliinases so far reported are homodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two identical subunits (Schwimmer and Mazelis 1963; Mazelis and Crews 1968; Tobkin and Mazelis 1979; Nock and Mazelis 1986; Landshuter et al. 1994; Lohmüller et al. 1994; Rabinkov et al. 1994; Manabe et al. 1998; Kuettner 2002a, b). Microbial alliinase has been only roughly purified from a fungus P. corymbiferum so that general properties of the fungal enzyme are mostly kept unknown (Durbin and Uchytil 1971). P-19486 alliinase consisted of 2 homologous subunits and this homodimeric subunit composition is quite similar to those of the enzymes from garlic and onion. PLP is a cofactor essential for the C-S lyase activity of alliinase so far reported (Tobkin and Mazelis 1979; Kuettner 2002a, b; Shimon et al. 2007). Although each subunit of alliinase contains one tightly bound PLP, its exogenous addition enhances the enzyme activity as the purification proceeds (Schwimmer and Mazelis 1963; Mazelis and Crews 1968). Such an enhancement effect of PLP on the enzyme activity also suggested the involvement of bound PLP in the C-S lyase activity of P-19486 alliinase.
There exist two diastereomers, (+)-S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide and (-)-S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, in the molecular structure of alliin because of the asymmetry of the sulfoxide group. These diastereomeric forms may not equally serve as a substrate for alliinase, if the stereochemically active center is involved in the enzyme reaction. Garlic alliinase more rapidly hydrolyzes (+)-alliin, a naturally occurring substrate for the enzymatic synthesis of allicin, than (-)-alliin (Stoll and Seeback 1951; Lancaster and Collin 1981; Kuettner et al. 2002b; Shimon et al. 2007). P-19486 alliinase seems to have a distinct amino acid sequence around the active site region for its strong contact with the sulfoxide group of (-)-alliin.
Alliinase shows a strict specificity toward alliin except that onion root isoforms, which are different in glycosylation, exhibit an additional activity toward L-cystine to a limited extent (Lancaster et al. 2000). Therefore, plant alliinase is fundamentally distinguished from S-alkyl L-cysteine lyase (EC 126.96.36.199), which stoichiometrically converts S-alkyl L-cysteine to S-alkyl mercaptan, pyruvic acid, and ammonia, as illustrated in Figure 1b (Schwimmer and Kjær 1960; Nomura et al. 1963; Mazelis and Creveling 1975). S-Alkylcysteine lyase from the bacterium Pseudomonas cruciviae similarly catalyzed the lyase action on (±)-S-alkyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide including (±)-alliin though the additional condensation reaction for allicin synthesis is not known for this bacterial enzyme (Nomura et al. 1963). In the sense, P-19486 alliinase is a novel enzyme that can alternatively exhibit the allicin synthetic activity on (-)-S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, (-)-alliin, and the C-S lyase activity on S-alkyl-L-cysteine (Table 3).
Allicin exhibits antifungal activity against various fungi including S. cerevisiae and the pathogenic yeast Candia albicans (Ankri and Mirelman 1999). In addition, allicin can enhance the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B, the most representative antifungal antibiotic, against these yeast strains (Ogita et al. 2006; Borjihan et al. 2009). A chemically synthesized allicin was used in these studies, whereas its enzymatic synthesis or even on-site production has been examined with the aid of garlic alliinase (Miron et al. 2003; Shadkchan et al. 2004; Fry et al. 2005; Slusarenko et al. 2008). It was doubtful whether P-19486 alliinase can be industrially or medically applied for allicin production because of its low thermal stability. However, this bacterial enzyme could effectively catalyze the corresponding allicin synthetic reaction using (±)-alliin at the concentration lower than the K m value (see Table 3 and Figure 4). In agreement with this fact, P-19486 alliinase could successfully generate a fungicidal activity using (±)-alliin as a precursor, which is easily synthesized by chemical oxidation of S-allyl-L-cysteine. The bacterial enzyme may be more beneficial when used in combination with garlic enzyme with respect to absolute conversion of (±)-alliin to allicin.
This study was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 20580083) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. The authors are grateful to Gong qinqin for her technical assistance to this work.
- Agarwal KC: Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res Rev 1996, 16: 111–124. 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1128(199601)16:1<111::AID-MED4>3.0.CO;2-5PubMedView Article
- Ankri S, Mirelman D: Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes Infect 1999, 1: 125–129. 10.1016/S1286-4579(99)80003-3PubMedView Article
- Block E: The chemistry of garlic and onions. Sci Am 1985, 252: 114–119. 10.1038/scientificamerican0385-114PubMedView Article
- Borjihan H, Ogita A, Fujita K, Hirasawa E, Tanaka T: The vacuole-targeting fungicidal activity of amphotericin B against the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans and its enhancement by allicin. J Antibiot 2009, 62: 691–697. 10.1038/ja.2009.103PubMedView Article
- Bradford MM: A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976, 72: 248–254. 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3PubMedView Article
- Casida LE Jr: Ensifer adhaerens gen. nov., sp. nov.: a bacterial predator of bacteria in soil. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1982, 32: 339–345. 10.1099/00207713-32-3-339View Article
- Durbin RD, Uchytil TF: Purification and properties of alliin lyase from the fungus Penicillium corymbiferum . Biochim Biophys Acta 1971, 235: 518–520.View Article
- Fry FH, Okarter N, Baynton-Smith C, Kershaw MJ, Talbot NJ, Jacob C: Use of a substrate/alliinase combination to generate antifungal activity in situ. J Agric Food Chem 2005, 53: 574–580. 10.1021/jf048481jPubMedView Article
- Jones MG, Hughes J, Tregova A, Milne J, Tomestt AB, Collin HA: Biosynthesis of the flavor precursors of onion and garlic. J Exp Botany 2004, 55: 1903–1918. 10.1093/jxb/erh138View Article
- Kuettner EB, Hilgenfeld R, Weiss MS: Purification, characterization, and crystallization of alliinase from garlic. Arch Biochem Biophys 2002, 402: 192–200. 10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00088-7PubMedView Article
- Kuettner EB, Hilgenfeld R, Weiss MS: The active principle of garlic at atomic resolution. J Biol Chem 2002, 277: 46402–46407. 10.1074/jbc.M208669200PubMedView Article
- Lancaster JE, Collin HA: Presence of alliinase in isolated vacuoles and of alkyl cysteine sulphoxides in the cytoplasm of bulbs of onion ( Allium cepa ). Plant Sci Lett 1981, 22: 169–176. 10.1016/0304-4211(81)90139-5View Article
- Lancaster JE, Shaw ML, Joyce MD, McCallum JA, McManus MT: A novel alliinase from onion roots. Biochemical characterization and cDNA cloning. Plant Physiol 2000, 122: 1269–1279. 10.1104/pp.122.4.1269PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Landshuter J, Lohmüller EM, Knobloch K: Purification and characterization of a C-S-lyase from ramson, the wild garlic Allium ursinum . Planta Med 1994, 60: 343–347. 10.1055/s-2006-959497PubMedView Article
- Lohmüller EM, Landshuter J, Knobloch K: On the isolation and characterization of a C-S-lyase preparation from leek, Allium porrum . Planta Med 1994, 60: 337–342. 10.1055/s-2006-959496PubMedView Article
- Manabe T, Hasumi A, Sugiyama M, Yamazaki M, Saito K: Alliinase [ S -alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide lyase] from Allium tuberosum (Chinese chive) - purification, localization, cDNA cloning and heterologous functional expression. Eur J Biochem 1998, 257: 21–30. 10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2570021.xPubMedView Article
- Martens M, Dawyndt P, Coopman R, Gillis M, De Vos P, Willems A: Advantages of multilocus sequence analysis for taxonomic studies: a case study using 10 housekeeping genes in the genus Ensifer (including former Sinorhizobium ). Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2008, 58: 200–214. 10.1099/ijs.0.65392-0PubMedView Article
- Mazekis M, Creveling RK: Purification and properties of S -alkyl-L-cysteine lyase from seedlings of Acacia farnesiana Willd. Biochem J 1975, 147: 485–491.
- Mazelis M, Crews L: Purification of the alliin lyase of garlic, Allium sativum L. Biochem J 1968, 108: 725–730.PubMed CentralPubMed
- Miron T, Mironchik M, Mirelman D, Wilchek M, Rabinkov A: Inhibition of tumor growth by a novel approach: in situ allicin generation using targeted alliinase delivery. Mol Cancer Ther 2003, 2: 1295–1301.PubMed
- Murakami F: Studies on the nutritional value of Allium plants: (XXXVII) Decomposition of alliin homologues by acetone-powdered enzyme preparation of Bacillus subtilis . Vitamins 1960, 20: 131–135.
- Nock LP, Mazelis M: The C-S lyases of higher plants: preparation and properties of homogeneous alliin lyase from garlic ( Allium sativum ). Arch Biochem Biophys 1986, 249: 27–33. 10.1016/0003-9861(86)90556-4PubMedView Article
- Nomura J, Nishizuka Y, Hayaishi O: S -Alkylcysteinase: Enzymatic cleavage of S -methyl-L-cysteine and its sulfoxide. J Biol Chem 1963, 238: 1441–1446.
- Ogita A, Fujita K, Taniguchi M, Tanaka T: Enhancement of the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B by allicin, an allyl-sulfur compound from garlic, against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. Planta Med 2006, 72: 1247–1250. 10.1055/s-2006-947203PubMedView Article
- Rabinkov A, Zhu XZ, Grafi G, Galili G, Mirelman D: Alliin lyase (alliinase) from garlic ( Allium sativum ). Biochemical characterization and cDNA cloning. Appl Biochem Biotchnol 1994, 48: 149–171. 10.1007/BF02788739View Article
- Rogel MA, Hernández-Lucas I, Kuykendall LD, Balkwill DL, Martinez-Romero E: Nitrogen-fixing nodules with Ensifer adhaerens harboring Rhizobium tropici symbiotic plasmids. Appl Environ Microbiol 2001, 67: 3264–3268. 10.1128/AEM.67.7.3264-3268.2001PubMed CentralPubMedView Article
- Sawada H, Kuykendall LD, Young JM: Changing concepts in the systematics of bacterial nitrogen-fixing legume symbionts. J Gen Appl Microbiol 2003, 49: 155–179. 10.2323/jgam.49.155PubMedView Article
- Schwimmer S, Kjær A: Purification and specificity of the C-S-lyase of Albizzia lophanta . Biochim Biophys Acta 1960, 42: 316–324. 10.1016/0006-3002(60)90795-2PubMedView Article
- Schwimmer S, Mazelis M: Characterization of alliinase of Allium cepa (onion). Arch Biochem Biophys 1963, 100: 66–73. 10.1016/0003-9861(63)90035-3View Article
- Shadkchan Y, Shemesh E, Mirelman D, Miron T, Rabinkov A, Wilchek M, Osherov N: Efficacy of allicin, the reactive molecule of garlic, in inhibiting Aspergillus spp. in vitro , and in a murine model of disseminated aspergillosis. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004, 53: 832–836. 10.1093/jac/dkh174PubMedView Article
- Shimon JWL, Rabinkov A, Shin I, Miron T, Mirelman D, Wilchek M, Frolow F: Two structures of alliinase from Alliium sativum L.: Apo form and ternary complex with aminoacrylate reaction intermediate covalently bound to the PLP cofactor. J Mol Biol 2007, 366: 611–625. 10.1016/j.jmb.2006.11.041PubMedView Article
- Siegel G, Walter A, Engel S, Walper A, Michel F: Pleiotropic effects of garlic. Wien Med Wochenschr 1999, 149: 217–224.PubMed
- Slusarenko AJ, Patel A, Portz D: Control of plant disease by natural products: allicin from garlic as a case study. Eur J Plant Pathol 2008, 121: 313–322. 10.1007/s10658-007-9232-7View Article
- Stoll A, Seeback E: Chemical investigation on alliin, the specific principle of garlic. Adv Enzymol 1951, 11: 337–400.
- Tobkin HE Jr, Mazelis M: Alliin lyase: preparation and characterization of the homogeneous enzyme from onion bulbs. Arch Biochem Biophys 1979, 193: 150–157. 10.1016/0003-9861(79)90018-3PubMedView Article
- Tsai Y, Cole LL, Davis LE, Lockwood SJ, Simmons V, Wild GC: Antiviral properties of garlic: in vitro effects on influenza B, herpes simplex and coxsackie viruses. Planta Med 1985, 51: 460–461. 10.1055/s-2007-969553PubMedView Article
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.